ANTA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Forensic Anthropology, Molecular Anthropology, Anthology

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15 Nov 2012
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Monday, September-10-12
Anthropology Lesson One
Anthropology is the study of humans. It can date back to prehistory (6 billion years ago) and understands all perspective
of humans (holistic)
Subtopics:
Cultural Anthropology what cultures are like in different parts of the world, the social norm and behaviour in a
particular culture (refer to ppt)
Ethnography compare cultures, study stats. Study a particular culture
Linguistics study of languages, speeches, kinship terms (mother, father, uncleetc.)
NOT GOING TO STUDY THE SUBTOPICS ABOVE. ONLY STUDY THE FOLLWING
Archeology fundamentally of material culture (refer to ppt: material). It is not the study of dinosaurs and human
bones. Instead, it studies tools and materials (currently or previously used) that are utilized in a particular culture.
Subtopics in Archeology:
Prehistoric historic Dates back to the beginning of history where there are not many records,
Biological Archeology Biological remains (e.g. Human bones)
Cultural Resource Management (refer to ppt).
Evolution understanding evolution across the world, study humans through time, bones, study genetic change of
humans
Subtopics in Evolution:
Modern Human Variability
Osteology Study of bones (teeth, diseases, function).
Forensic anthropology Study of the remains of bones to solve legal cases (e.g. forenstic anthologist see dent
on the skull which means that the victim died with a blow on the head)
Medial Anthropology Studies human health and disease, healthcare systems and biocultural adaptation.
Examines how society is formed through health care and issues.
Molecular Anthropology Application of molecular studies looks at genetics to look at past (ancestry), study
of genetics
Human Evolution
Paleoanthropology Study of fossil humans
Paleoprimatology Study of primate fossils to understand human evolution
Primatology Study of primates to understand humans (E.g. Study of sexual behaviour between primates)
***Anything with “pale” is the study of fossils
Monday, September-10-12
EVOLUTION
Biblical Creationism (refer to ppt: creationism)
People believed Earth was created in Oct. 22 4004 BC (Earth is Libra). Earth is around 6000 years old. The world came to
be through catastrophe. Catastrophists reason things through catastrophe (change is sudden e.g. the land is like this
because there was a tsunami)
Eg. Why canyon is there there must be some catastrophe that caused it to be there ).
Refer to great chain of being pic at ppt. Chain of being is fixated and extinction is false. Why would god create
something to just die out? Everything goes according to plan.”
Uniformitarianism (refer to ppt) contrast catastrophism. People believe that Earth came to be through long
process and time. Eg. Takes time for land to develop, rather than it was suddenly there through catastrophe
James Hutton (1726 1797) Developed the idea of the process of how the world came to be today
(uniformitarianism).
Sir Charles Lyell (1797 1875) Popularized uniformitarianism (wrote Principles of Geology). He gathered
evidence that Earth is older than 6000 years old. (Supported Hutton).
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comete de Buffon (1707 1788) developed the idea that change happened. Created
the Theory of Degeneration (refer to ppt). Buffon doesn’t know how to explain HOW adaptation happened (i.e
evolution without evidence)
Adaptation (refer to ppt for definition) a fit b/w organism and its environment. The organism is
adapting (changing) to survive in the environment. Creationists won’t explain adaptation (why would god
create something not meant for environment. Everything was planned so change is unnecessary).
Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet (1744 1829) Giraffe example (refer to ppt). He is wrong b/c you
cannot evolve in your lifetime. Important step in evolution.
Thomas Malthus (1766 1834) Not every organism can succeed. Wrote Essay on the Principle of Population.
There is only certain amount of resources the Earth provides to living things. Only certain amount of
population for each species (there is a limit).
Charles Darwin (1809 1882) went on the ship (Beagle) to go on islands and observe life of animals (eg.
Galapagos islands). Refer to finches on ppt for example of adap’ve radia’n. Created natural selection. Offsping
of better adaptive variance will be more likely to surpvive. Whoever survives affects future population. (very
well off and rich). 1871 , finaly decide to talk about evolution (book: refer to ppt).
Adaptive radiation: Ancestral bird produces birds, the birds scatter and then they develop and evolve
differently to adapt the environment. Birds develop different and acquire different genetics
Alfred Russel Wallace (1823 1913) gave letter to Dawrin (refer to ppt), came from poor background.