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BIOB32H3 Lecture Notes - Tendinitis, Medial Meniscus, Patellar Ligament

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Kenneth Welch

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Joints (Articulations)
Weakest parts of the skeleton
Articulation site where two or more bones meet
Give the skeleton mobility
Hold the skeleton together
Classification of Joints: Structural
Structural classification focuses on the material binding bones together and whether or not a
joint cavity is present
The three structural classifications are:
Classification of Joints: Functional
Functional classification is based on the amount of movement allowed by the joint
The three functional class of joints are:
Synarthroses immovable
Amphiarthroses slightly movable
Diarthroses freely movable
Fibrous Structural Joints
The bones are jointed by fibrous tissues
There is no joint cavity
Most are immovable
There are three
types sutures,
and gomphoses
Fibrous Structural Joints: Sutures
Occur between the bones of the skull
Comprised of interlocking junctions completely filled with CT fibers
Bind bones tightly together, but allow for growth during youth
In middle age, skull bones fuse and are called synostoses
Fibrous Structural Joints: Syndesmoses
Bones are connected by a fibrous tissue ligament
Movement varies from immovable to slightly variable
Examples include the connection between the tibia and fibula, and the radius and ulna
Fibrous Structural Joints: Gomphoses
The peg-in-socket fibrous joint between a tooth and its alveolar socket
The fibrous connection is the periodontal ligament
Cartilaginous Joints
Articulating bones are united by cartilage
Lack a joint cavity
Two types synchondroses and symphyses
Cartilaginous Joints: Synchondroses

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A bar or plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bones
All synchondroses are synarthrotic
Examples include:
Epiphyseal plates of children
Joint between the costal cartilage of the first rib and the sternum
Cartilaginous Joints: Symphyses
Hyaline cartilage covers the articulating surface of the bone and is fused to an intervening
pad of fibrocartilage
Amphiarthrotic joints designed for strength and flexibility
Examples include intervertebral joints and the pubic symphysis of the pelvis
Synovial Joints
Those joints in which the articulating bones are separated by a fluid-containing joint cavity
All are freely movable diarthroses
Examples all limb joints, and most joints of the body
Synovial Joints: General Structure
Synovial joints all have the following:
Articular cartilage
Joint (synovial) cavity
Articular capsule
Synovial fluid
Reinforcing ligaments
Synovial Joints: Friction-Reducing Structures
Bursae flattened, fibrous sacs lined with synovial membranes and containing synovial
Common where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together
Tendon sheath elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon
Synovial Joints: Stability
Stability is determined by:
Articular surfaces shape determines what movements are possible
Ligaments unite bones and prevent excessive or undesirable motion
Muscle tone is accomplished by:
Muscle tendons across joints are the most important stabilizing factor
Tendons are kept tight at all times by muscle tone
Synovial Joints: Movement
Muscle attachment across a joint
Origin attachment to the immovable bone
Insertion attachment to the movable bone
Described as movement along transverse, frontal, or sagittal planes
Synovial Joints: Range of Motion
Nonaxial slipping movements only
Uniaxial movement in one plane
Biaxial movement in two planes
Multiaxial movement in or around all three planes
Gliding Movements
One flat bone surface glides or slips over another similar surface
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