EESA06H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Sulfur, Clastic Rock, Igneous Rock

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Environmental Science
Course
EESA06H3
Professor
Mar 4, 2013
EESA06 Lecture 8 Notes
Layer cake diagram has the 4 layers of Ontario geology
Most rocks in layer 1 are metamorphic; made when old plates came together
and formed old mountains that no longer exist
Gneiss rock on the way to Sudbury is the roots of old chain of mountains that
have been worn away by erosion
May collisions happened to form the craton/core of North America
Layer 2 was the mountainous surface and was located near the equator
Over time the erosion wore down layer 2 until it was relatively flat;
peneplanation (rugged surface that was worn down to being almost flat)
Coral reef started to form and created limestone on layer 2; has lots of
sedimentary rocks
Bits of rock that are eroding off of the mountains are deposited into the
shallow seas with the coral reef and smothers them; forms clastic
sedimentary rocks such as sandstone and shale
Layers of repetitive rocks- inter-bedding (repeated cycles of rock types)
Paleozoic is 400-600 mya
Black line between layers 1 and 2 is the great unconformity
Black line between layers 2 and 3 is the unconformity called the ‘big gap’
Layer 3 is not rocks but glacial and interglacial sediments
20 000 Toronto was covered by a km thick of ice
Interglacial means between times of ice cover
Layer 4 is all the garbage and building; everything humans are doing to the
landscape
Each layer has different resources
People started making geologic maps when they became interested in
resources
Egyptian map was used to find way to gold resource
Before Agricola, people thought rocks and minerals had magic properties
Agricola noticed that slaves working in mines got diseases that other people
didn’t get, and noticed things about geology so he wrote a book about
geology and diseases
William ‘Strata’ Smith; came up with the stratographic principal of fossils to
figure out what layers are older than others; made the first modern
geological map
Sir William Logan made maps for the search for coal
Slave Craton and Superior Craton are the old areas that are part of layer 1
and are marked as greenstone; they have a specific set of index minerals
which make the rock look green
Greenstone is extraordinarily rich in economic resources such as gold
*short answer question* VMS: you get sea water and near MOR, the sea water
gets into the cracks and gets heated up; as sea water gets heated and goes
through the rocks, it ends up exchanging O, K, Ca, Mg between water and the
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Document Summary

Layer cake diagram has the 4 layers of ontario geology. Most rocks in layer 1 are metamorphic; made when old plates came together and formed old mountains that no longer exist. Gneiss rock on the way to sudbury is the roots of old chain of mountains that have been worn away by erosion. May collisions happened to form the craton/core of north america. Layer 2 was the mountainous surface and was located near the equator. Over time the erosion wore down layer 2 until it was relatively flat; peneplanation (rugged surface that was worn down to being almost flat) Coral reef started to form and created limestone on layer 2; has lots of sedimentary rocks. Bits of rock that are eroding off of the mountains are deposited into the shallow seas with the coral reef and smothers them; forms clastic sedimentary rocks such as sandstone and shale. Layers of repetitive rocks- inter-bedding (repeated cycles of rock types)

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