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GGRC33H3 Lecture Notes - New Urbanism, Urban Sprawl, Environmental Hazard

Course Code
David J Roberts

of 3
Week 9 GGRC33
Is Toronto Sprawling?
No area in GTA is unplanned. Has to do with over land use planning.
Developers always need to get approval to do development
Because there is provincial over land use,
In reality, all of Toronto has been planned and has much higher density than many
of the cities that has been criticized
Population Built Up
Transit race affects this density
Forced infilled development by Toronto. Developers knew that there was no development
going to be done within the greenbelt. The reason why residences are so concentrated
unlike USA
Concerns about sprawl in 1980s and 1990s
Changes of immigration and employment and other economic conditions
Migration internationally and within the country to Toronto
This increased population growth means lower farmland
Environmental protection has become more important at this time
Constrained development from rising prices and protecting environmental lands
Politics of suburban sprawl, growth management
Developers and market should control growth doesn’t match with environmental
agenda and protection
Part of why there was a conservative government in Ontario was because the
support of the 905 area
E.coli contamination (lack of municipal control in water management) at this time
but it heightened awareness for protecting water
- Literature Review:
Opposition to ‘Big Pipe’
Take sewage from York Region to Pickering where it will be treated and then
dumped to lake Ontario
Big environmental hazard
Big pipe going through the most environmentally sensitive land areas
The question is, what sort of damages would this cause to already protected lands?
o Opposition argues that they should deal with the water sewage at the York
Why it got approved?
o B/C developers were willing to pay 80% of the cost
Oak Ridges Morane Act
Only 8% for new growth
Development has already happened there but new developments are disallowed
Potentially affects housing values If development arises in greenbelt areas.
Bond Lake, Richmond Hill
Conflict with developments that have already happened
If they have intervened further than they would have done, they would’ve gone to
court and lost
Greenbelt gets expanded north and south side of the oak ridges morane
Part of the influence of the greenbelt, Neptis studied the future study development potential
for the GTA and had 4 ideas about the development.
- Businesses (continuing existing ideas for planning)
- Consolidated (controlled)
- Multi-centered
- Dispersed
Congestion Projects
- Traffic congestation and traffic control has been the primary concern for planners
- Businesses as usual while they are carefully planned, would also lead to increases in
- Toronto is still using the business model
Map 7
Neptis Critique
- There is still too much countryside and green space that is available for
development and would be developed in sprawl sense of ways
- Unprotected lands doesn’t fall under the protection act of the morane
- There is an easy shift in future development and unprotected lands
- Potential for sprawl to take place in the edges (yellow areas)
- We don’t yet have a criteria when we are not sprawling
Greenbelt shortcomings?
- Idea that greenbelt is an big enough to adequately protect for future development
- Other sorts of uses of area can put these lands at risk. Not just by sprawl and
protecting it
Increased activity of greenbelt which can bring problems and issues to environment lands
- What do u think?
o Do u think it is correct it is sprawling?
Yes and No
We know it when we see it
Housing density
Been carefully planned
No leapfrogging
Dense compare to other sprawling areas in USA
o Good Policy? What are the major criticism of this approach to growth?
Greenbelt was a big environmental movement in the GTA
Not a necessarily as comprehensive
Doesn’t allow developments
Plenty of places to sprawl
Puts heritage culture at risk with greenbelt act
o What greenbelt policy will last or be abolished by a future government?
Opinion based on lecture
o What are the factors?
Sample Final Exam Question:
- Talks about environmental control as a huge factor since the 1980s why certain land
forms structures are favoured or disfavoured
o Question about sprawl and environmental protection have been influential
and critiqued
o Retrofitting suburb
o New Urbanism
o Car oriented vs TOD