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Lecture 15

PSYB30H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Bookkeeping


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Oren Amitay
Lecture
15

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Lecture 15
Characteristics Adaptations Conclusion
Human Development
Erik Erikson
Theory of Psychosocial Development
Reformulation of Freud's psychosexual development
Erikson re-conceptualizes each of the Fruedian stages and he also extends Freud model
beyond childhood and emphasizes adulthood and across the life span
Important aspects of his theory
Stages
Tasks/Issues
Virtues/Strength
2 key ideas underlying Erikson thinking
1)The Epigenetic Principle
Personality is designed to unfold across a predetermined series of stages that all
people must pass through
Each stage presents a challenge or issue and it must be confronted
Doesn't mean we will always resolve it and succeed
Optimal Time
For each of these challeneges there is an optimal time and it is crucial that we
undertake them at a particular time
It cannot be rushed and cannot be stalled
Virtue
a psychosocial strength that comes from having adequately addressed a
challenge
Favorable balance
these tasks involve conflicts with two outcomes
the virtue or strength is to be found between those two outcomes
you can have an excess or deficiency in the characteristic you're supposed to
inherit. A failure to resolve a challenge could lead to an excess or defficiency.
The goal is to have the perfect balance between them – a balance
2) Triple Bookkeeping
person's life must be understood on 3 levels of analysis
If you want to describe a person's functioning you must consider these
body
body and the sexual urges housed within the body
a description of the person's functioning must consider this aspect of functioning
the ego
person's conscious understand of the world
underemphasized in Freudian thinking
family/society
look at developmental history in relation to the context of family, history, and
society in order to understand individual
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Life Span Developmental Theory
Development continued way past childhood
1)Infancy
Issue of Trust/mistrust
bond with mom
The virtue to be acquired: HOPE
equips child to help face adversity later in life and to ensure that there will be
a positive outcome in the end.
Falls between trust and mistrust
Maladaptation of falling on either side = sensory distortion
Excess: Way too trusting/gullable
Defficiency: Not trusting = withdrawal = paranoia/depression = too
doubtful
2) Toddlerhood
Autonomy vs. Shame & doubt
Child is now able to walk & crawl around, can somewhat speak, exploratory
behaviour
Virtue: Will
capacity to be self-efficacious
Maladaptation:
Excess: Impulsivity, shameless wilfullness, unmitigated autonomy
Defficiency: Compulsion, self-doubting, perfectionistic
Inbetween impulsivitiy & compulsivity = will
3) Preschool Child
Initiative vs. Guilt
Has more power in the world
Virtue: Purpose
Giving direction to action
Maladaptation:
Excess: Ruthlessness = way too much initiative, no regard for others
Defficiency: Inhibition = don't take risks
4) School-Age Children
Children leave home and go away for school
Industry vs. Inferiority
Maladaptation
Excess: Excessively Industrious = Narrow Virtuousity
Child actors, prodigies: excellence in a very specific area of functioning.
They aren't being allowed to be children.
Defficiency: Inertia = a sense of inferiority.
Virtue: Competence
5) Adolescence *
13-18
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Higher cognitive capacities, people are capable of counterfactual thinking – what
if questions, can reflect back on the past and question,
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