Solutions 1- socialization
society is the product of human activity
the idea of creation society-
e.g.: eating ﬁsh on friday by catholics-they developed reason why to eat ﬁsh on fri
after a couple generation it becomes a part of life…losing the original intention
-ﬁsh becomes institutional & normative
individuals as products of society
a bus: when u get on it goes on a way like society ...u get on and off the bus like living and dying..the bus route is ﬂexible just like life.
society is not ﬁx like the subway but its not as free like plane
Are there cultural universals?
There are but not speciﬁc..
-eg: incest taboo (not very speciﬁc-some banned even third cousin some ﬁrst cousin)
violence IN the group ( IN the group but not OUT the group-If out would be wars)
funerals (e.g mourning) (again not speciﬁc- some 3days mourning some 1 year even)
emerging ones- human rights
Virtually all social practice are relative..
Larceny, incest, infanticide, parricide --- everything has at some time been accounted a virtuous action
Inidividuals must be socialized
- observed from feral children (children who lack human contact or brought up by the wild)
Socialization and order (constraint conforrmating)
-we have to learn the basic values and norms if society
-we internalized the social norms "in" the self
-they motivate us
-spring to action
-we would obey or feel guilt (motivated to follow rules)
- vs over socialized conception of persons
-we became well-trained dogs to society and norms
But how deep does socialization go?
Eg One: STALIN (Soviet union leader)
- wanted to create a new soviet person- he did all means to makes this
-complete control of media and education
-indoctrinate through constant propaganda
-banned religion -undermining ethnic groups
- censorship -no access to printing outside party
- Eg: 19th century women: woman fainted at the wrong words or inappropriate words. Culture deﬁne our certain point of view, the way we see this.
Over socialized conception of persons 1
- we are never fully socialized- the parts of us that are not socialized- named 'IT'
-Socialization only works in the conscious mind
Over socialized conception of persons 2
- socialization varies by group, place etc
Solutions 2: sanctions/ force
-reward desirable behavior
- force ultimate means of social control
-restriant because of prudence
-Up to 60 million deaths
-19th century thinkers believe if god is dead anything would be permissible
-soldiers on front lines could not retreat or else wo