complex society- more hierarchy organize
one social organizational form---chiefdoms(typically straddle different environmental
niches ex. coast, inland)
leadership more formalized more permanent leaders get position through inheritance
(ascribed--they are not something one achieve through abilities but rather by birth order)
REDISTRIBUTION(ﬂow in and then out) goods ﬂow to a center then redistributed to the
populace through networks to kin)
Example: Malenoski Trobriand island: matrilineal chiefdoms
-chief is typically a man inherited position from mothers brother altho role is ascribed the
chief is often chosen amongst several potential chiefs (all decedents)...often chose
because of his people skills.
-chief his status might not last...if fails he can be replaced by another person from
lineage able to take over.
-slightly more formularized than the position of a big man( new Guinean no chief but a
skilled man rises to a position by managing to tie people together to him)
-chiefdom is often poor(cant keep things for himself)
-Surplus yams are produced for exchange and to feed to pigs(surplus to exchange and
store ex.yams stored--how can you store???store it in domesticated in animals (pigs)
therefore, pigs become wealth.
-Domestic animals store surpluses that would otherwise quickly perish=wealth
-Trobriandes exchange pigs in bride wealth to create and maintain relations between
where do we ﬁnd chiefdom??
-once through pre colonial africa, the americas, paciﬁc islands,central asia, premodern
-varying degrees of hierarchy and differences of prestige and or wealth
-elaborate: were ranged from non complicated of chiefdoms to extreme completed
chiefdoms in Hawaii(nobility were distinguish from commoners by sumptuary rules
(some sort of food reserved for nobles), display, elaborate etiquette, restrictions on
language use. Paramount chief was a living god.
form of social organization a horticultural or pastoral society:
depends on availability of resources.