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ANT100Y1 Lecture Notes - Central Asia, Proletarianization, Deterritorialization

Course Code
Janice Boddy

of 3
march, 24/2011
complex society- more hierarchy organize
one social organizational form---chiefdoms(typically straddle different environmental
niches ex. coast, inland)
leadership more formalized more permanent leaders get position through inheritance
(ascribed--they are not something one achieve through abilities but rather by birth order)
REDISTRIBUTION(flow in and then out) goods flow to a center then redistributed to the
populace through networks to kin)
-large size
Example: Malenoski Trobriand island: matrilineal chiefdoms
-chief is typically a man inherited position from mothers brother altho role is ascribed the
chief is often chosen amongst several potential chiefs (all decedents)...often chose
because of his people skills.
-chief his status might not last...if fails he can be replaced by another person from
lineage able to take over.
-slightly more formularized than the position of a big man( new Guinean no chief but a
skilled man rises to a position by managing to tie people together to him)
-chiefdom is often poor(cant keep things for himself)
-Surplus yams are produced for exchange and to feed to pigs(surplus to exchange and
store ex.yams stored--how can you store???store it in domesticated in animals (pigs)
therefore, pigs become wealth.
-Domestic animals store surpluses that would otherwise quickly perish=wealth
-Trobriandes exchange pigs in bride wealth to create and maintain relations between
where do we find chiefdom??
-once through pre colonial africa, the americas, pacific islands,central asia, premodern
-varying degrees of hierarchy and differences of prestige and or wealth
-elaborate: were ranged from non complicated of chiefdoms to extreme completed
chiefdoms in Hawaii(nobility were distinguish from commoners by sumptuary rules
(some sort of food reserved for nobles), display, elaborate etiquette, restrictions on
language use. Paramount chief was a living god.
form of social organization a horticultural or pastoral society:
depends on availability of resources.
-principle way is to have large herds of sheep,
-More Arid zones
-social organization range from tribes to cohesive chiefdoms depending on pop-density
-some pastrolasts have a mixed economy(practice seasonal, rainfall cultivation)
-have to be mobile (moving on annual cycle; extended family may divide up for part of
the year patter called transhumance ;season movement of people and herds)
Somalia camel herders
-environment relatively dry
East Africa and Central Asia
-environment not suitable for rainfall
Peasant cultivation(AGRICULTURE--requires some change to environment)
-using fields through permanent basis, high pop- densities, continuous cultivation
-short fallow periods, fertilizers
-high labour inputs, costs ex. modify environment through irrigation
Complex chiefdoms(hawaii chiefdoms) and state(kinship now starts to become less
significant as to means of organizing society
-they coordinate labour to manage cultivation and ensure seasonal ground progress
enabling everyone to make a living; manage conflict
-Organic division of labour(organized hierarchy organized
inequality:classes,castes,bureaucratic hierarchy)
-peasants are only part of the society they are only one part in states
-peasant families need to produce surplus to enable a hierarchy, rent fund(cultivators
have to produces funds,substance fund, produce a reproduction fund(replace seeds
used in a given year--replacement fund), produce a sermonical fund(what goes into
feasting,gift giving to create social solidarity
Peasants have to do more and make more surplus rent fund to ensure the leadership
is supplied with food and make a living
-market economy,forms of impersonal exchange,barter,distribution centers
-Regional organization (ex.village,neighborhood) tend to be as, or more important than
large descent groups.
State:centralized authority with power to coerce(labour,compliance), manage
competition; urbanization. The elite ten to be found in Urban centers.
(on slide)Bali, irrigated rice terraces at different stages.
**Agriculture a good idea??
**John Bodley
-Newguina horticulture inputs is far less than USA
Industrial agriculture uses 8-12 calories of energy to produce 1 calorie of food for
!**Colonization, industrialization, globalization
deterritorialization of the global economy, division of labour now across countries an
articulation of modes of production, ways of life: westernization isn't erasing or
flattening out cultural difference. Cultural vary in how they incorporate new technologies
(ex.cell phones in sudan) and ideas blending, domestication
At social level, global economy (out sourcing) is continuing to widen the gap between
poor and wealthy even as some people in developing countries gain access to more
-Sudan, satellite TV, cell phones; land being bought up by foreign countries in Middle
East, subsistence cultivation in decline. Proletarianization(owners no longer owners of
the land); peasantariat--farmers can no longer produce all their own food, must buy it in
the market. Food prices rising, little work (many jobless yet educate)
**Bali: retains much of its “traditionalavor, despite being very much of the 21st
century, and a tourist haven: cultivation of “otherness
-villages of small holders, sharecroppers, irrigated, rice terraces
-many people today make a living from tourism
-pre-colonial period was organize into principalities under aristocrats from previously
Hindu Java; now Bali is part of the multi-religious Indonesian State
-commoners/gentry distinguished:rank,status
-92% Hindu
**Balinese social organization, generalization