Distance from camera (shot scale) level, angle, height (canting framing), use more language/describe more, the particularity. Sound: separate strand of technology, last of stylistic categories, divorced from mise en scene, editing & permanent component of film in 1927. Rely on sound for basic narrative information (dialogue, soundtrack) Difficult to analyze, cannot be frozen in place/paused. Directs the spectator"s attention: to a certain figure, use auditory clue, direct our gaze to a prominent sound source on a soundtrack. Shapes how images are interpreted: render an image more comprehensible or ambiguous depends on how sound is paired with image, Sets a mood: horror movies, music with images. Create motifs: contribute the structure of a narrative by using repetition. (violin music from in the mood for love) Defines onscreen space: lend space a certain character. Offscreen space: illusion of diegetic world that is more expansive than what we see on screen.