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Lecture 10

CLA160H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Socii, Fregellae, Pyrrhic War


Department
Classics
Course Code
CLA160H1
Professor
Adriana Brook
Lecture
10

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CLA160 Lecture 10 JULY27/2011
509 to the 2nd Century BCE The Early and Middle Republic
-Republic founded on 509 BCE
-People in the neighbouring cities fighting over land and resources
-As a result, Rome expanded their territory but in a modest way
Roman Expansion in Italy
Latium
-Capture of Veii in 396 BCE
Veii, an Etruscan city
Mirrors Rome as it too was gradually expanding
Rome absorbed its people and some were sold off
Absorbed into Romes institution/government
-Rome not confined to their city anymore; starting to expand to other places with resources
-Rome likes absorbing rather than coexisting with other cities
-390 BCE: Sack of Rome by Gauls
-In the 5th century BCE, Roman expansion was confined in Latium
Central Italy
-Samnites were tribal people located near Latium
They equal Rome, as they too were a growing society but they dont possess a city,
like Rome
-Samnite Wars:
First War: 343 to 341 BCE
Capua, in Campania, was encroached by the Samnites
They asked Rome for help
First war was nondecisive ?
Capua-Rome maintained their alliance
Second War: 326-304 BCE
Rome sent Fregellae a colony
Samnites declared that Fregellae was in Samnite lands and so refused the
Roman colony
Battle of Claudine Forks in 321 BCE Roman defeat
Battle between Samnites and Romans continued even after the Roman
defeat
Peace was finally made in 304 BCE
As a result of this 2nd War, Rome slowly encroaches into Samnite territory
Went across the Apennine into Apulia and sent colonies
Third War: 298-290 BCE
Via Appia
Won by Rome
Samnites asked for peace they became socii
-Rome begins to expand out of Latium, started by their alliance with Capua
-Rome fought with the Volsci and Aequi and were victorious against them
-Latin Wars: 340-338 BCE
End of the Latin League
Rome the de facto leader
Neighbouring places absorbed
Rome renamed the absorbed cities municipia (singular: municipium)
Municipias were required to pay taxes
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CLA160 Lecture 10 JULY27/2011
Municipia sine suffragio
Has no right to vote
Socii (allies)
Doesnt have Roman citizenship
Not required to pay taxes
Socii Nominis Latini
Had special rights
-Rome founded colonies and its people were given socii status
Northern Italy
-Rome came into contact with Sabines and Gauls
-Absorbed cities into the Roman institution
-Rome was determined to ensure the loyalty of these cities make sure they remain
Roman
Southern Italy
-Greeks live in South Italy
-Greeks didnt fall easily to the Romans
-Native local Italians also lived in South Italy
Some supported Rome, others the Greeks
-Greek cities not at peace: oligarchy vs. democracy
-Tarentum wants to be in charge
Asked for outside help from King of Pyrrhus of Epirus (King of Molossus)
He thought it was advantageous to gain access to this land by helping the
Tarentums (i.e. trade routes, resources, etc.)
-Pyrrhic War: 280-275 BCE
Battle of Heraclea 280 BCE
Greeks won but lost lots of people, so the victory wasnt so great
Battle of Ausculum 279 BCE
Similar to the Battle of Heraclea, Greek lost was too much that their victory
wasnt so great
Battle of Beneventum: 275 BCE
Rome finally won
Forced them to become Roman allies
They are culturally Greek but under Roman control
Rome goes to war because
-Land, war booty
-Leading Rome to victory as a general means personal glory achievement that could help
raise ones rank to consulship later on
-Political development?
Why was Rome so successful?
-Internal coherence (esp. after 367 BCE)
-Good relationship with allies
-External threats (Gauls)
-Geographically Central
-Fertile and Populous
- Military Organization and Tactics
-Luck
Inside Rome from 509 to the 2nd century
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