GGR124H1 Lecture Notes - Global City, High Tech, Free Market

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10 Feb 2013
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Lecture 5
Global Cities
Every city wants to be know as: Its cosmopolitan, its outward looking, it has
a vision looking out side its border
Globalization means highest-order functions concentrate in only a few key
o there are linkages that are located across the globe instead of just
inside the city
These are “Global Cities”
Places where the command and the control of the world economy is
o Increasing concentrations of HQs, financial services, etc.
o You would locate in a powerful city if you wanted a good job , with
great economic power
Characteristics of Global Cities
Main sites for capital investment
o much of the global investment that takes place , services investment,
economic investment, services, real estate ( towers, sky scrapers, etc.)
. Centre of Financial Capital big banks
Location of highest-order functions/markets
Main destination points for migrants (Internal and External)
o External - Use as landing point and then move on farther to the
Most intense places for economic growth, innovation
Large and increasing social inequalities/polarization
o Income polarization, wealth isn’t distributed equally
Hierarchy of Global Cities
First Tier New York, London, Tokyo
o Concentrations of the highest order functions
2nd tier- Toronto, Sydney, Chicago, Berlin
o Concentrations of national and regional HQs , high-tech
manufacturing, producer services
The Internal Structures of Cities
Urban Land-Use Patterns
Urban environment is changing continuously
Varety of scales
o Individual households
o Large scale infrastructure projects
Occurs through market forces and/or government planning
Theories /models help our understanding
Analysis of the town plan
1960’s – work of Michael Conzen
Landscapes divided in three elements
o Town planning (street layout)- most resistant to change
o Building Form slow to change
The types of buildings, what the buildings are used for
Maybe knocked down and then something new is built
Old industrial buildings refurnished to be housing
Tip top tailors was a factory now it’s a condo r
o Land-Use most susceptible to change
Human Ecology
Chicago School of Ecology (1920s)
Ecological theories applied to land use
o Competition
o Invasion the most desired parts of the city invaded by a particular
land use . Ex residential activity invading industrial land
o Succession- one land use succeeds another
o Dominance
Free market dictates type of land-use
Natural areas evolve reflecting dominant homogenous social or ethnic
Burgesses’ Concentric Zone Model
Second zone zone of transition
Alonzo’s Bid-Rent Model
Most expensive land is expensive in
downtown and it gets cheaper as you get
farther out
Hoyts Sector Model
Harris & Ullman’s Multiple Nuclei Model