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JGI216H1 Lecture Notes - Saskia Sassen, Outsourcing, Capital Accumulation

Geography and Planning
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Edward Soja: Contemporary Comparison of LA and Amsterdam
Argument: LA and Amsterdam are 2 cities that would appear to be incomparably different at first glance. They are not
identical or converging towards a simple model of global city formation. Rather, they are both undergoing broad restructur-
ing due to their embeddedness within an emergent global urban system, and so their restructuring can show important as-
pects of urban life under capitalism.
Growth of outer cities. Decentralization of manufacturing from industrial capitalist cities. jobs and factories shift to suburbs
that has been changing the international division of labour and spatial division of labour within urban regions
Sprawling, de-centered metropolis. a ton of suburbs
Housing Shortages
golden age- was the typical model of mercantile capitalism. survived many reformations to remain in the higher ranks of
the contemporary world
Increasing internationalization of the regional metropolis
scope of internationalization in therm of capital and labour: control of world trade, international financeial investment by the
national state. and NOW ADD the finances of industry and production services. tall this allows the world city to function on
a global scale.
Foreign Internationalization downtown

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LA: few constraints of foreign investment downtown
Amsterdam: more controlled
Attraction of alot of foreign workers
LA & Amsterdam: many minorities working part time low pay
But LA has huge housing shortages among immigrants
only 1/100 LA ers live downtown
10% of Amsterdammers are centrum dwellers
Many LA ers never been downtown,attract few tourists
Downtown Amsterdam attracts hoards of tourists
Amsterdam: Cycle culture- environmentally conscious
LA: 3/4 of downtown devoted to automobile
LA Downtown Overview: business + commerce, clashing cultures, housing shortages, extreme wealth and poverty, many
homeless (almost half of central city’s population) despite various attempts at gentrification and dispersal , boredom
tamed by overindulgence

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AMSTERDAM Downtown Overview: Cultural + political activities, many different age groups, lack of housing shortages
(much of city made up of public/social housing. accommodated a lot of immigrants in the past) , traditional urban form +
function of suburbs
LA - Unconventional Urban Growth
While most cities have emptied their manufacturing industry, LA has continued industrial growth in core and periphery.
Amsterdam-Traditional Growth
Traditional urban form +function of suburbs
Economic Growth
LA: rapider growth, welcomed foreign investment with few constraints
-Widening gap of rich and poor, increase of low wage jobs
Amsterdam: more stable, key industries: finance
maintain concentration in american and japanese banks, # of foreign listings on stock exchangeexports and contol of
dutch pensions.
increase of low wage jobs, reduction in high wage jobs, higher unemployment
Restructuring of urban form= both experienced complex decentralization and recentralization over last 30 years
LA: Huge sprawl. huge economic output
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