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Lecture 2

HIS241H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Anti-Clericalism, Utopia, Louis Marc Antoine De Noailles

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Anthony Cantor

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The French Revolution: Part 2 Sept. 22, 2016
The Road to Revolution
1787: renewed attempt to change the tax system, refused by the Parliaments yet again
o Parliaments and the church pushed for Estates General, hoping that through them, they would be able
to reaffirm their privileges
o Louis XVI ignored the Parliament, and instead called the Assembly of Notables (the heads of the
Parliament) to Paris, hoping to push tax reform through them
May, 1788: Louis XVI disbanded the Parliaments in response to the Assembly asking to see his financial books
inflation was happening in Europe, and it hit France the hardest b/c it was a big trade centre
August, 1788: financial crisis reaches its boiling point
The Road to Revolution, Part 2
Louis XVI called an Estates General, in hopes of finally pushing his tax reform through
Estates Geeal: gatheig of the thee diff estates i Fae
o 1st estate: nobility
o 2nd estate: the church
o 3rd estate: everyone else
Louis XVI hoped to turn everyone else against the other two estates, balancing the power
1st and 2nd estates proved to be more liberal than expected
unsurprisingly, the 3rd estate was hugely radical
1789: Louis XVI called the Estates General for the 1st time in a while
Procedural Problems
two estates need to agree on something, which then passes
3rd estate wanted something more radical, so they suggested that each estate vote through delegate rather
than per estate
o massive public support for this What is the Thid Estate?
o Louis XVI did’t do aythig, hoee
The Road to Revolution, Part 3
June, 1789: 3rd estate lost patience and formed the National Assembly
o members from the other two estates were also invited, and a surprising # joined
June 20, 1789: National Assembly went to Versailles to meet, but found that the doors were locked and guards
were present Louis XVI had learned about their plan
o Tennis Court Oath: Assembly moved to a tennis court across the street, and declared that they ould’t
move until a constitution of some sort is drawn and sworn upon
Louis XVI eventually bent to the will of the Assembly, agreeing to some limited reforms but only if the voting of
estates stayed in place this did’t ok
June 30, 1789: Louis XVI agreed to voting by head and to a constitution but only if drawn by all three estates
togethe, ut it’s ay too late
o French ppl worried that the new Assembly would be destroyed by the king, so they joined communes
and armed themselves
leadership in the communes were called Sans Culottes: poo ppl
The Road to Revolution, Part 4
July 14, 1789: ppl of Paris decided to storm the Bastille, an old prison and a symbol of royal justice and power
o the French managed to take Bastille and Paris this becomes a symbol of rising up against authority
o caused the ppl to become more and more radical and dangerous
o Louis XVI did’t atually espod to the stoig of the Bastille, esides a siple uestio
after the storming, the French formed the National Guard under the Marquis de Lafayette
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