HPS211H1 Lecture Notes - Voltaic Pile, Leyden Jar, Galvanism


Department
History and Philosophy of Science and Technology
Course Code
HPS211H1
Professor
Curtis Forbes

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Conservation of Energy
Electricity
- Leyden Jar electricity was thought of a fluid. It was thought of as a bottle of
electricity.
- “Animal” Electricity – metal he was using was charged where the electric affect
was coming from. Thought source was the frog’s tissue. A new type of electricity
and called it animal electricity.
- Voltaic Pile galvanism. Became skeptical and didn’t believe in animal
electricity. Discovered a Current must be added to animal tissue to make it move.
2 different types of metals separated by sponge and wetness created by
electrolyte. One of those units will give you a direct current. As you add on more
units, you increase the voltage. Gave experimenters a steady current over a
sustained period of time. Before this, they used friction machines. Voltaic pile put
a rest to those efforts. Ben Frank used this.
- Electromotive measured in volts
- Vulnerability between charge and motive work
Magnetism
- Loadstones understood by middle ages you could use magnets for navigation.
Did understand that magnets could be used to orient yourself. Descartes had a
screw model of magnetism. Effort to give mechanical explanation of this
phenomenon.
- Faraday become preoccupied with studying magnetism. Came up with lines of
force. Mathematical ability was poor. Experimental work innovative. Greatly
illuminated relationship between magnetism and electricity.
-
Electromagnetism
- Oersted
- Ampere aimed to show convertability between one another and convertability in
one direction. Wind up wire create a circuit in a pile, you get something that acts
like a magnet. Farady showed oppose affect. Deduce a current. Through moving
of a magnet, you could induce electrical current.
- Electromagnets and electromotors people were preoccupied with steam power
and wanted to generate steam engines. Electrical motors could power ships. TO
make them efficient as possible, a lot of experimental work went into
understanding motors and attraction. Phenomenon of generating heat as well as
light. People wanted to know how to quantify it and conversions.
Naturphilosophie
- German Idealism nature as unified and organic. You cannot look at one
phenomenon. You have to look at the whole picture. You cannot just look at
electricity. You have to look at all aspects heat, magnetism etc.
- Vitalism all inanimate objects … animate objects you will have a different set of
laws, may not even be laws, could be lawless. Non physical entity.
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