NMC277H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Al-Muqaddasi, Ibn Hawqal, Alp Arslan

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The crusader states in the levant
Aleppo during early period of Crusades
Ridwan of Aleppo – tried to capture Damascus from Brother Duqaq
Modus operandi – against unification of Syria – hostile to mosul expeditions sent to fight
the crusades
Preserve own independence – drove out his atabeg – Janah al Dawlah –
An early encounter – crusade expeditions from Mosul
RELIGIOUS LEADERSHIP/RESPONSE: Ibn al Khashab
-shiii qadi play part in ruling Aleppo
After ridwans death in 1113 – decade and half of chaos – Aleppo – not a major city but old
city – in order to stabilize they invite il ghazi of MArdin
After ridwan assassins were pushed out of Aleppo and he was succeeded by son alp arslan
but killed by atabeg badr addin lulu who was
Most famous artuqid ruler – Ilghazi of MArdin – in south east Anatolia – leader at battle of
Balat
Saves Aleppo from crusades
Damascus during early period of Crusades – ruled by Buqaq – Half brother of Ridwan
Real power is atabeg Tughtikin B. Buri
Former mamluk of Tutush (father of Duqaq nd Ridwan)
Founder of Burid dyn in Damascus and ended with nur al din in 1154
Tughtikin : After death of Duqaq succeeded by Tutush (II) dies soon after and younger
brother irtash fled to mesopotamia
Nur addin – prosperious reign, stability, but enemy – kingdom of Jerusalem
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Armies of Duqaq and ridwan was too small unreliable turkoman and Bedouins – left after
battle
Tughtigin – staunch sunni ruler – protect muslim stria
Entered intoalliances with mosul against franks – to protect Damascus independence and
resources – hence bad image in muslim chronicles
Laid foundation for cultural pol vitality of Damascus – Nur addin with advance
Evolution of Jihad spirit in early Crusader
In 11th century pre crusade Syria – geographers ibn Hawqal and Muqaddasi say no jihad
spirit
Ibn al Khayyat
Bond between seljuks and religious rulers not strong
Major battles and events between the crusader states
Success of First Crusade
- shock and outrage to loss of jerusalme
- poets and preaches
Crusade of 1101
- buoyed by success of the first Crusade
- led by Lombard of Milan
Battle of Harran – victory of muslims
Battle of Balat – 1119 – crusader garrsions wiped out – Aleppo invited il ghazi – dies –
vaccumm in Aleppo
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