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NFS284 Chapter 13 Review Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Nutritional Science
Tom Wolever

Nutrition: Science and Applications - Strength training Chapter 13 – Exercise, fitness, and health o Use all major muscle groups o Repeat exercise 8-12 times Fitness  the ability to perform routine physical activity without undue fatigue o Muscle should be close to exhaustion o ↑ weight = ↑ muscle strength Overload principle  adaptation to stress during exercise  the more you do, the more you are capable of doing o ↑ number of repetitions = ↑ muscle endurance Cardiorespiratory endurance  how long you can continue a task Fueling exercise - Increased by aerobic exercise - Aerobic metabolism o ↑ heart rate o Presence of oxygen o ↑ use of oxygen o Glucose + amino acids + fatty acids  CO2 + ATP o ↓ resting heart rate o 1 molecule of glucose  36-38 ATP o ↑ stroke volume - Anaerobic metabolism o ↑ aerobic capacity for VO2 max o Absence of oxygen  Maximum amount of oxygen consumed by tissue during o Glucose  ATP exercise o 1 molecule of glucose  2 ATP - O2 is delivered from the lungs to the blood  O2 is circulated throughout Muscle strength and endurance - Increased by repeated resistance or strength training (e.g., using muscles the body in the blood  O2 is taken up by muscles and tissues, and used in to move against a resisting force) aerobic metabolism  CO2 in carried away from the muscle in the blood  CO2 is exhaled through the lungs o ↑ muscle hypertrophy (Note: loss of muscle = atrophy) o ↑ bone density - At rest o ↓ osteoporosis o Muscles do not need much energy Flexibility  range of motion  stretching of ligaments and muscles o Heart and lungs deliver enough oxygen for aerobic metabolism - Increased with regular movement - During exercise Body composition  amount of lean body mass compared to body fat o Muscles need more energy - Fitness leads to higher proportion of lean body mass o More oxygen must be delivered to muscle for aerobic metabolism Health benefits of exercise o When exercise first begins, breathing and heart rate is not - Regular exercise increases total energy expenditure (TEE) sufficient to deliver enough O2 to the muscle - Regular exercise increases muscle  increases resting energy metabolism - Exercise duration (REE) or basal metabolic rate (BMR) o Instant energy (10-15 seconds) = ATP and creatine phosphate  Stored ATP and creatine phosphate can be rapidly - Cardiovascular health o ↓ blood pressure converted to ATP o ↑ HDL cholesterol o Short term energy = anaerobic metabolism (glucose)  After 10-15 seconds, breathing and heart rate is still not - Diabetes prevention and ma
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