POL207Y1 Lecture Notes - Serge And Beate Klarsfeld, Antifeminism, Jean Moulin

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Vichy France- Review
Exam
- three sections
- first is 20 percent and it is factual answers (Upper House in Germany is…)
- short answer section, 5 out of 7 questions, defining and explaining key
institutions, concepts, etc.
- two standard essay questions, the welfare state is the end of Europe
- lecture is most of the essay, use readings to fill in the gaps in information
Europe in the Shadow of its Past 1: Vichy
- The history of world war two is politics in Europe
o To do with pain associated with deportations, concentration camps etc.
o Everything seems to come back to 1939
- There is another dynamic, coming to terms with the past
- When countries deny their history, it doesn‟t seem to just go away, it keeps
coming back
Vichy Crimes
- With little, resistance, Vichy regime implemented Germany‟s racial laws. 75,000
Jews sent from France to Auschwitz
- Night of 16 July 1949, 9,000 police officers rounded up 13,000 Jews-> 6,000 of
these were sent to a deportation camp, Drancy, outside Paris
France during the War
- Two Frances: France of Vichy and occupied France
- Vichy: until 1942, it was less than a sovereign state but more than a colony
- Many people were convinced that June 22 was not a defeat but also a National
Revolution, hat France would transform itself and find a place in the new German
Europe
Philippe Petain
- Today, „Petainist,‟ is an insult of the gravest order
- 1939-1940, he was the dominant figure in the French military and in French
politics
- 1939: became France‟s first ambassador to Franco (the Left complained that
Franco deserved no such honour)
- Convinced that politicians brought France into a war for which she was not
prepared
- Was a hero because of defending Verdun and ending army mutinies in 1917
- Petain entered into a government in May 1940
- He came out in favour of an armistice, France‟s days were numbered
- June 17: “It is with a heavy heart that I tell you to fate that we must cease
hostilities” 22 June 1940 France fell
- 10 July: all but 80 deputies voted to dissolve 3rd Republic and to hand powers to
Marshall Petain; 12 July Pierre Laval became his VP
Vichy‟s national revolution
Vichy Was:
- Anti- liberal and anti-parliamentary
- Combining of legislative and executive powers
- Anti-republican work, family country replacing liberty, equality, fraternity
- Anti-feminist
- Belief in an organic society, without class division
- Corporatist and anti-unionist
- Anti-Semitic and hostile to Communists and free masons
- National revolution and collaboration were distinct
- National revolution was a particular vision of France that could go hand in hand
with Collaboration (Petain) with opposition to the collaboration (Paul Weygaud)
or even with fanatical anti-German hatred (Charles Maurras). One could also be
collaborationist (Laval) without supporting the National Revolution
Vichy hopes
- Petain and Laval hoped to carve out a place for France by making themselves
indispensible to the Germans. Laval participated in the deportation of (mostly
foreign Jews) from unoccupied France, and suggested including children.
- Petain and Laval offered French support in the defence of German and French
positions against the Allies. Policy failed: Vichy won paltry concessions:
reduction in occupation costs, right to more arms, release of POWs
- However, 2/3 of French Jews (French citizens) survived. Citizenship DID matter
o Citizenship mattered because Vichy was very hesitant to give up their
Jews, their French citizens, they were willing to deport foreign Jews
instead
After
- After the war, defenders of a place in a German Europe and argued that they had
been a shield for France. Arguments:
o France did not suffer Poland‟s fate (Hitler never intended to it)
o Vichy prevented deportations of workers (untrue: 646,000 forced
labourers, third after SU and Poland)
o Relatively few of France‟s Jews died (24%)
Collaboration in the Occupied zone
- Like resistance, collaboration is highly difficult to define
- Even Jean Moulin, tortured to death by Klaus Barbie for his resistance activities
worked as a prefect in the occupied zone, often cordially, with the Germans
- Added to this is casual collaboration
- Hoffman distinguishes between voluntary and involuntary collaboration
- Most extreme collaborationists were found in Paris
Paris Collaborationists
- Far exceeded Vichy in their fanaticism
- Paris collaborationists included public ideologues as well as politicians
administrators in the police and civil service
- Dominated by the right, though anti-Communism and pacifism attracted figures
from the left
Vichy and the Jews
- Collaboration reached its peak with respect to the Jews
- Eugene Deloncle organized early rains on synagogues that the Germans protested
- 7,000 were sent to a stadium, the Velodrin d‟hiver, where they were left for 5
days w/o food or water, 100 killed themselves; the rest were deported to
Auschwitz
- Vichy policemen rounded up included 4,000 children whom the Nazis were
willing to spare
End of Vichy
- 10 Nov, 1942; Germans invade all of France; Vichy truly a puppet regime
- August 1944; France liberated, purges began
Post War France
- Resistance split into two movements: Gaullist moderates and Communist
hardliners
- 10,000 summary executions
- Ad hoc courts established for punishing collaborators
- 10,000 women‟s heads shaved
- Resistance divided almost immediately Communists dominated the National
Resistance Council and Paris Civilian Committee. Here they attempted to impose
a revolutionary view of the liberation, and Committees of Liberation meted out
justice
- De Gaulle: sought to replace revolutionary authorities and revolutionary justice
with rule of law and established judicial authorities. Prefects took over from
committees of liberation, and regular courts were called to prosecute those facing
charges
Purging Collaborators
- Some of the main collaborators were judges and civil servants, and if the purging
is too extreme it could be the start to a civil war
- De Gaulle has to be very careful
- Petain was sentenced to death
- Followed much the same path as denazification in Germany
- Petain sentenced to death, committed to life in prison
- Pierre Laval, after a trial the Americans viewed as farcical, was shot, left half-
conscious and vomiting
- All deputies who voted for Petain‟s investiture, as well as all civil servants guilty
of collaboration, were to be excluded from office, phasing the whole political
class out of power
- De Gaulle saw risks of Communist takeover
- Deliberately fostered the myth of resistance; all the French, except for a few
wretches, were resisters (Dutch did this to a certain degree as well)
- Civil servants given the job of purging themselves; they closed ranks, and of 1
million civil servants, 5,000 were removed from office another 5-28,000
received lesser sanction
- De Gaulle interpreted the war as victory in a 30 year war with Germany, and
equated 1918 with 1945

Document Summary

Europe in the shadow of its past 1: vichy. The history of world war two is politics in europe: to do with pain associated with deportations, concentration camps etc, everything seems to come back to 1939. There is another dynamic, coming to terms with the past. When countries deny their history, it doesn t seem to just go away, it keeps coming back. With little, resistance, vichy regime implemented germany s racial laws. Night of 16 july 1949, 9,000 police officers rounded up 13,000 jews-> 6,000 of these were sent to a deportation camp, drancy, outside paris. Two frances: france of vichy and occupied france. Vichy: until 1942, it was less than a sovereign state but more than a colony. Many people were convinced that june 22 was not a defeat but also a national. Revolution, hat france would transform itself and find a place in the new german. Today, petainist, is an insult of the gravest order.