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POL312Y1 Lecture Notes - Great Power, Patriation, Middle Power

Political Science
Course Code

of 2
Nov 1 2012
POL 312Y1 Canadian Foreign Policy
Prof. Greaves
Page 1
POL 312Y1 Canadian Foreign Policy
Lecture 8 Trudeau (and Clark)
Lecture is short today because there was a quiz
- In July 24 1967 there was an incident French president visited Canada and
went to Montreal. He stood on the Montreal city hall and said “Long live
independent Quebec” and this was a huge deal because you don’t go to
another country and encourage movement. He showed his view that Quebec
should be independent. This was publicly inflamed by a big political figure.
- Different responses about this:
o Paul Martin Sr. mild response that Canada should not really
express the objection to this. Not make it bigger deal than what it is
o Trudeau - this was an upfront Canadian sovereignty and we needed
an apology from him for this.
- This little episode is used to mark the transition of federal liberal politician to
political arrival of Trudeau. This is how he won colleagues in cabinet. When
he became prime minister he did not follow middle power footsteps of
- 1967 was a huge part of modernization of the Middle East, which had an
affect on Canadian idea of what peacekeeping is. This is why Pearson had to
- 1979 he announced to step down and was succeeded by John Clark. Then he
shouldn’t have come back but he did.
- A very important figure
3 fundamentals
- National unity imperative
o By virtue of his biculturalism deeply held that Quebec is part of
Canada, his concern was not foreign policy but domestic. He
recognized the value of foreign policy including maintaining Quebec
within Canada. Canadian value had a lot to do with Quebec.
- English-French “equalization” – “French Revolution” in CFP
o Better incorporating French people within Canada
o Quebec people needed to feel that they were part of Canadian
- International systemic change
o His leadership in the country coincides with international system
o WW2 came to an end when he became PM. US was in hegemonic
decline. So you see re-emergence with the Great power (West
Germany and Japan), opening room for certain types of foreign policy
that would have been closed during the high American hegemony
Nov 1 2012
POL 312Y1 Canadian Foreign Policy
Prof. Greaves
Page 2
Major decision and events
- * ADD “1982 – Patriation of Constitution“
- 1968 1970
o Trudeau said he will stop ties with France if it kept encouraging
Quebec independence and he was successful in this
- 1969 Nato
o He was reluctant to use military force and was skeptical of NATO
because it was Anglo-centric institution that was not a solution to
security problem, instead an expensive commitment
o He ended up withdrawing Canadian troops from Europe (still part of
NATO though), contradicting what US wanted Canada to do
- 1970 Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act
o Domestic legislation that gave us pretense as Canadian internal water
and territory
o Increased the area of Canada by 1/8th because that extra water was
- Not enough time to cover the rest of slide
End of class