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Lecture 9

PSY260H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Twin, Motor Skill, Episodic Memory


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY260H1
Professor
Martin Ralph
Lecture
9

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 6 pages of the document.
We#are#really#building#on#the#more#fundamental#aspects#of#learning#and#
memory#-conditioning
Non-associative#type#of#learning#is#used#to#acquire#skills#-fundamental#changes#
in#the#nervous#system
Abilities#that#can#improve#over#time#-talents
Enduring#ability#that#develops#with#practice#over#time
Implicit#type#of#memory#-involves#changes#in#the#brain#that#allows#us#to#
remember#the#sequence#of#events#and#peripheral#changes#as#well
Fixed#action#patterns#-certain#behaviour#in#order#to#find#their#needs#(innate#
behavioural#traits)
Cannot#always#be#verbalized
Unconsciously#acquired#and#retrieved#-we#don't#intend#to#acquire#a#skills#but#
we#are#required#to#perform#tasks#that#develop#the#skills
Doesn't#necessarily#involve#actions
Basis#for#memories#of#events#and#facts#-episodic#memory#is#pretty#much#the#
same#way
What%are%skill%memories?%-non-declarative%or%procedural%learning
Perceptual#skills#-built#on#the#perception#of#feedback#(we#can#adjust#actions#
based#on#the#feedback
Rotary#pursuit#task#-a#task#where#the#user#must#hold#the#end#of#a#pointed#stick#
above#a#rotating#target#(everyone#gets#better#at#some#point)
Young#adults#tend#to#acquire#abilities#quickly#than#older#adults#and#tends#to#do#
better#during#the#retesting#of#skill
Games#require#a#variety#of#perceptual-motor#and#cognitive#skills,#diverse#
levels#of#expertise
Chess#masters#quickly#focus#on#key#board#locations,#empty#squares,#
relevant#chess#pieces;#amateurs#slowly#scan#many#locations
Mental-cognitive#skills#is#also#involved#in#athletic#performance,#chess#
masters#have#this#skills#stronger
Researchers#often#study#athletes#and#chess#masters
Pre-defined#sequence#of#movements
Closed'skills -involve#established#movement#(we#have#a#goal#in#mind#and#what#
deviates#in#our#goal#is#avoided#driving#ourselves#closer#to#our#goals)
Skill#set#that#allows#us#to#changes
Skills#that#require#participants#to#respond#based#on#predictions#about#the#
changing#demands#of#the#environment
Open'skills -respond#to#environmental#changes#(contextual#changes#to#which#to#
need#to#accommodate)
More#likely#than#cognitive#skills#to#be#learned#implicitly
Perceptual-motor%skills -learned#movement#patterns#guided#by#sensory#input
The#ability#to#reason#is#what#distinguishes#humans#from#animals#-Descartes
Tower#of#Hanoi#puzzle#-requires#a#number#of#skills#and#a#good#measurement#for#
different#skills
Tool#use#involves#perpetual-motor#and#cognitive#skills#-for#example#chimps#uses#
stones#to#crack#nuts
Recall# and#re-enactment#of#past#episodes#is#a#cognitive#skill#-can#be#improved#
through#practice
Cognitive%skills -emphasizes#problem#solving#or#applying#strategies
Most#modern#research#equates#talent#with#genetic#predispositions#that#
positively#affect#an#individual's#abilities
Talent -mastering#a#skill#with#little#effort#-a#gift
Mastery#of#skills#at#an#early#age#is#predictive#of#which#individuals#will#
reach#the#highest#levels#of#performance
Also,#the#total#amount#of#practice#is#critical#in#predicting#whether#a#person#
will#be#an#expert#at#performing#a#particular#skill
Perceptual#learning#may#contribute#to#the#superior#abilities#of#experts#-
especially#in#sports#like#soccer#and#basketball#where#movement#of#the#
players#are#what#experts#observe#rather#than#the#ball
Expertise -performing#a#skill#better#than#most#people
Expertise%and%talent
The#task#requires#precise#hand-eye#coordination#in#keeping#the#stylus#over#the#
target
Twin#studies#show#that#identical#twins#improve#at#the#same#rate#with#additional#
practice#in#this#task#while#fraternal#twins#don't
This#shows#that#the#performance#of#one#twin#became#more#correlated#with#the#
performance#of#the#second#twin#when#two#twins#shared#100%#of#their#genes
Practice#decreases#the#effects#of#participants'#prior#experiences#on#the#accuracy#
of#their#tracking#movements#and#increases#the#effects#of#genetic#influences
Rotary%Pursuit%Task
Is#memory#storage#of#skills#and#procedures
Has#also#been#referred#to#as#"tacit#knowledge"#or#"implicit#knowledge"
Involved#in#tasks#such#as#remembering#how#to#play#handball#or#how#to#ride#a#
bike
"Know#how"#memory#-it#often#can#only#be#expressed#by#performing#the#specific#
skill#and#people#have#problems#verbalizing#what#they#are#doing#and#why
Very#important#in#human#motor#performance
Procedural%memory
Correlation#of#sleep#with#skill#memory
Sleep#spindles#increase#after#you#learn#something#new#-electrical# signals#in#the#
brain
Number#of#changes#in#the#electrical# activity#in#the#brain#that#allows#for#the#
rehearsal#of#events#from#the#prior#day
See#slides
EEG#during#sleep#shows#that#they#do#better#when#people#get#enough#sleep#
Sleep
Training#improves#performance
Non-trained#control#sequences#are#not#improved
Improvement#does#not#transfer#to#contra#lateral#hand
Contra#lateral#motor#cortex#activity#is#increases
Results%-hand%sequence%trials%(serial%reaction%time%task)
Roles#of#basic#conditioning#responses
Strategy#depends#on#prior#learning
More#proficiency#=#less#room#for#improvement
§
Power'law'of'learning -for#perceptual-motor#skills,#learning#first#occurs#
rapidly,#then#slows,#following#a#predictable#pattern
Feedback#can#improve#the#effects#if#practice#-not#all#feedback#is#equally#
helpful
The#kind#of#feedback#can#determine#how#practice#effects#performance
Infrequent#feedback#leads#to#mediocre#performance#in#the#short#term#but#
better#performance#in#the#long#term#(frequent#feedback#is#the#reverse)
Massed#practice#-concentrated,#continuous#practice#(better#short#
term#retention)
§
Spaced#practice#-better#long#term#retention#(practice#spread#out#
over#several#sessions)
§
Apportioned#effort
Very#limited#set#of#materials#and#skills
Constant#practice#-reportedly#practicing#the#same#skills#under#the#
same#conditions
§
Varied#materials#and#skills
Variable#practice#-practicing#a#skill#in#varied#conditions#
§
Practice#conditions
Acquiring#new#skills
Modifying#old#skills#-it#could#be#difficult#to#modify#a#learned#method#or#skills#
Acquiring%skills
Skills#memory#is#developed#through#practice
If#we#don't#use#a#skill,#the#skill#is#vulnerable#to#skill#decay
Proactive#interference#-difficulty#learning#and#remembering#newer#
material
Retroactive#interference#-difficulty#remembering#older#material
Skill#memory#is#subject#to#interference:
Retention%and%Forgetting
Skill#memory#is#so#specific#introduction#of#additional#cues#can#disrupt#
performance
Context#is#an#important#determinant##Of#our#performances
Transfer#specificity#-restricted#applicable#of#learned#skills#to#specific#situations
Encoding#and#subsequent#practice#in#a#certain#context#might#lead#to#transfer#
specificity,#which#limits#transfer#of#training
Transfer%of%Training
In#initial#learning#of#a#new#skill,#we#tend#to#follow#a#set#of#rules#(declarative)
Motor#programs#can#either#be#inborn#or#learned#(unlike#reflexes#that#are#
inborn)
Attention#to#the#declarative#rules#become#unimportant
Cognitive#skills#can#also#become#a#motor#program#with#extended#practice
Skill#memories#can#be#memories#for#events#and#facts#-for#example,#
remembering#the#instructions#to#set#a#time#on#the#microwave
With#practice:#steps#become#automatic#(motor'programs)#-sequence#of#
movements#that#an#organism#can#perform#virtually#automatically#with#minimal#
attention
Models%of%Skill%Memory:%Motor%Programs%and%Rules
Basing#performance#on#what#he#knows,#as#well#as#on#his#ability#to#control#
his#movements#and#thoughts#so#as#to#accomplish#specific#goals
Cognitive'stage -requires#the#active#thinking#to#encode#skills
The#brain#has#formed#specific#combinations#and#is#recalling# them#as#
directed
Associative'stage-learners#being#using#stereotyped#actions#when#performing#
the#skills#and#rely#less#on#actively#recalled# memories#of#rules
Producing#very#rapid#sequences#of#precisely#timed#combinations#of#the#
movements#to#achieve#specific#outcomes
Choking#under#pressure#-when#you#think#too#much#about#what#you#are#
doing#when#you#perform#a#skill#which#impairs#performance
Autonomous'stage-the#stage#at#which#the#skill#or#subcomponents#of#the#skill#
have#become#motor#programs
Stages%of%Acquisition%(see%book%pp.%319-321)
Neuroscientists#hope#to#associate#skill#acquisition#stages#with#changes#in#brain#
activity
Spinal'cord'and'brain'stem -play#a#critical#role#in#the#performance#of#
perceptual-motor#skills#by#control#and#coordinate#skill#movements
In#fact,#most#cortical#areas#send#inputs#to#the#basal#ganglia
§
The#basal#ganglia#receive# large#numbers#of#inputs#from#the#cortical#
neurons
Relay#sensory#information#form#cortex#to#thalamus#and#brain#stem
Initiating#and#maintaining#movements
Particularly#important#for#controlling#the#velocity,#direction#and#amplitude#
of#movements,#as#well#as#preparing#to#move
Acquiring##information#about#what#would#happen#when#we#behave#during#
a#certain#context
Active#when#individuals#learned#to#make#judgements
Basal'ganglia -clusters#of#neurons#at#base#of#forebrain#close#to#hippocampus
Striatum -initially#processes#cortical#inputs#and#plays#an#important#role#in#
operant#conditioning
Important#for#learning#movement#sequences#that#require#precise#timing
Also#important#for#tasks#that#involve#aiming#at#or#tracking#a#target
Cerebellum -plays#a#key#role#in#learning#to#predict#important#events,#especially#
the#formation,#execution,#and#timing#of#conditioned#response
Dopamine#-VTA,#SN
Acetylcholine#-PPT,#PDT
Norepinephrine#-LC
Serotonin
Neural%Substrates
Video#game#paying#proficiency#requires#perceptual-motor#and#cognitive#skill#
development
Visual#attention#abilities#improves#with#playing#high-action#video#games
Video%Games%Good%for%the%Brain?
Animals#with#little#cortex#learn#mazes#or#lever#pressing
Has#inputs#from#spinal#cords,#sensory#systems#and#cerebral#Cortez
Has#outputs#to#spinal#cord#and#cortical#motor#system
Important#in#learning#precisely#time#movement#sequences
Cerebellum#is#important#in#encoding#and#retrieving#skill#memories
The%Cerebellum%and%Timing
We#need#sensory#motor#feedback#to#acquire#skills
Sensorimotor#circuits#required#for#learning#skills
Basal#ganglia#are#important#for#initiation#and#maintaining#movement
Dame#to#basal#ganglia#impairs#goal-directed#locomotion
Cortical#plasticity#compensate#for#damage#to#the#basal#ganglia
Neoplastic%changes%in%the%brain%following%motor%skill%learning
We#need#to#do#something#to#coordinate#muscular#movements#in#the#periphery
Plasticity#occurs#(see#slides)
Blocking#the#action#of#the#ion#exchangers#results#in#longer#Ca2+#retention#in#the#
terminal
53:15#-recording#about#Ca2+
What%happens%in%the%periphery?
Read%chapter%8
Skill%Memory%and%Sleep
Tuesday,# November# 4,#2014
10:57#AM

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

We#are#really#building#on#the#more#fundamental#aspects#of#learning#and#
memory#-conditioning
Non-associative#type#of#learning#is#used#to#acquire#skills#-fundamental#changes#
in#the#nervous#system
Abilities#that#can#improve#over#time#-talents
Enduring#ability#that#develops#with#practice#over#time
Implicit#type#of#memory#-involves#changes#in#the#brain#that#allows#us#to#
remember#the#sequence#of#events#and#peripheral#changes#as#well
Fixed#action#patterns#-certain#behaviour#in#order#to#find#their#needs#(innate#
behavioural#traits)
Cannot#always#be#verbalized
Unconsciously#acquired#and#retrieved#-we#don't#intend#to#acquire#a#skills#but#
we#are#required#to#perform#tasks#that#develop#the#skills
Doesn't#necessarily#involve#actions
Basis#for#memories#of#events#and#facts#-episodic#memory#is#pretty#much#the#
same#way
What%are%skill%memories?%-non-declarative%or%procedural%learning
Guided#by#what's#going#on#around#us#-we#can#acquire
Perceptual#skills#-built#on#the#perception#of#feedback#(we#can#adjust#actions#
based#on#the#feedback
Rotary#pursuit#task#-a#task#where#the#user#must#hold#the#end#of#a#pointed#stick#
above#a#rotating#target#(everyone#gets#better#at#some#point)
Young#adults#tend#to#acquire#abilities#quickly#than#older#adults#and#tends#to#do#
better#during#the#retesting#of#skill
Games#require#a#variety#of#perceptual-motor#and#cognitive#skills,#diverse#
levels#of#expertise
Chess#masters#quickly#focus#on#key#board#locations,#empty#squares,#
relevant#chess#pieces;#amateurs#slowly#scan#many#locations
Mental-cognitive#skills#is#also#involved#in#athletic#performance,#chess#
masters#have#this#skills#stronger
Researchers#often#study#athletes#and#chess#masters
Pre-defined#sequence#of#movements
Closed'skills -involve#established#movement#(we#have#a#goal#in#mind#and#what#
deviates#in#our#goal#is#avoided#driving#ourselves#closer#to#our#goals)
Skill#set#that#allows#us#to#changes
Skills#that#require#participants#to#respond#based#on#predictions#about#the#
changing#demands#of#the#environment
Open'skills -respond#to#environmental#changes#(contextual#changes#to#which#to#
need#to#accommodate)
More#likely#than#cognitive#skills#to#be#learned#implicitly
Perceptual-motor%skills -learned#movement#patterns#guided#by#sensory#input
The#ability#to#reason#is#what#distinguishes#humans#from#animals#-Descartes
Tower#of#Hanoi#puzzle#-requires#a#number#of#skills#and#a#good#measurement#for#
different#skills
Tool#use#involves#perpetual-motor#and#cognitive#skills#-for#example#chimps#uses#
stones#to#crack#nuts
Recall# and#re-enactment#of#past#episodes#is#a#cognitive#skill#-can#be#improved#
through#practice
Cognitive%skills -emphasizes#problem#solving#or#applying#strategies
Most#modern#research#equates#talent#with#genetic#predispositions#that#
positively#affect#an#individual's#abilities
Talent -mastering#a#skill#with#little#effort#-a#gift
Mastery#of#skills#at#an#early#age#is#predictive#of#which#individuals#will#
reach#the#highest#levels#of#performance
Also,#the#total#amount#of#practice#is#critical#in#predicting#whether#a#person#
will#be#an#expert#at#performing#a#particular#skill
Perceptual#learning#may#contribute#to#the#superior#abilities#of#experts#-
especially#in#sports#like#soccer#and#basketball#where#movement#of#the#
players#are#what#experts#observe#rather#than#the#ball
Expertise -performing#a#skill#better#than#most#people
Expertise%and%talent
The#task#requires#precise#hand-eye#coordination#in#keeping#the#stylus#over#the#
target
Twin#studies#show#that#identical#twins#improve#at#the#same#rate#with#additional#
practice#in#this#task#while#fraternal#twins#don't
This#shows#that#the#performance#of#one#twin#became#more#correlated#with#the#
performance#of#the#second#twin#when#two#twins#shared#100%#of#their#genes
Practice#decreases#the#effects#of#participants'#prior#experiences#on#the#accuracy#
of#their#tracking#movements#and#increases#the#effects#of#genetic#influences
Rotary%Pursuit%Task
Is#memory#storage#of#skills#and#procedures
Has#also#been#referred#to#as#"tacit#knowledge"#or#"implicit#knowledge"
Involved#in#tasks#such#as#remembering#how#to#play#handball#or#how#to#ride#a#
bike
"Know#how"#memory#-it#often#can#only#be#expressed#by#performing#the#specific#
skill#and#people#have#problems#verbalizing#what#they#are#doing#and#why
Very#important#in#human#motor#performance
Procedural%memory
Correlation#of#sleep#with#skill#memory
Sleep#spindles#increase#after#you#learn#something#new#-electrical# signals#in#the#
brain
Number#of#changes#in#the#electrical# activity#in#the#brain#that#allows#for#the#
rehearsal#of#events#from#the#prior#day
See#slides
EEG#during#sleep#shows#that#they#do#better#when#people#get#enough#sleep#
Sleep
Training#improves#performance
Non-trained#control#sequences#are#not#improved
Improvement#does#not#transfer#to#contra#lateral#hand
Contra#lateral#motor#cortex#activity#is#increases
Results%-hand%sequence%trials%(serial%reaction%time%task)
Roles#of#basic#conditioning#responses
Strategy#depends#on#prior#learning
More#proficiency#=#less#room#for#improvement
§
Power'law'of'learning -for#perceptual-motor#skills,#learning#first#occurs#
rapidly,#then#slows,#following#a#predictable#pattern
Feedback#can#improve#the#effects#if#practice#-not#all#feedback#is#equally#
helpful
The#kind#of#feedback#can#determine#how#practice#effects#performance
Infrequent#feedback#leads#to#mediocre#performance#in#the#short#term#but#
better#performance#in#the#long#term#(frequent#feedback#is#the#reverse)
Massed#practice#-concentrated,#continuous#practice#(better#short#
term#retention)
§
Spaced#practice#-better#long#term#retention#(practice#spread#out#
over#several#sessions)
§
Apportioned#effort
Very#limited#set#of#materials#and#skills
Constant#practice#-reportedly#practicing#the#same#skills#under#the#
same#conditions
§
Varied#materials#and#skills
Variable#practice#-practicing#a#skill#in#varied#conditions#
§
Practice#conditions
Acquiring#new#skills
Modifying#old#skills#-it#could#be#difficult#to#modify#a#learned#method#or#skills#
Acquiring%skills
Skills#memory#is#developed#through#practice
If#we#don't#use#a#skill,#the#skill#is#vulnerable#to#skill#decay
Proactive#interference#-difficulty#learning#and#remembering#newer#
material
Retroactive#interference#-difficulty#remembering#older#material
Skill#memory#is#subject#to#interference:
Retention%and%Forgetting
Skill#memory#is#so#specific#introduction#of#additional#cues#can#disrupt#
performance
Context#is#an#important#determinant##Of#our#performances
Transfer#specificity#-restricted#applicable#of#learned#skills#to#specific#situations
Encoding#and#subsequent#practice#in#a#certain#context#might#lead#to#transfer#
specificity,#which#limits#transfer#of#training
Transfer%of%Training
In#initial#learning#of#a#new#skill,#we#tend#to#follow#a#set#of#rules#(declarative)
Motor#programs#can#either#be#inborn#or#learned#(unlike#reflexes#that#are#
inborn)
Attention#to#the#declarative#rules#become#unimportant
Cognitive#skills#can#also#become#a#motor#program#with#extended#practice
Skill#memories#can#be#memories#for#events#and#facts#-for#example,#
remembering#the#instructions#to#set#a#time#on#the#microwave
With#practice:#steps#become#automatic#(motor'programs)#-sequence#of#
movements#that#an#organism#can#perform#virtually#automatically#with#minimal#
attention
Models%of%Skill%Memory:%Motor%Programs%and%Rules
Basing#performance#on#what#he#knows,#as#well#as#on#his#ability#to#control#
his#movements#and#thoughts#so#as#to#accomplish#specific#goals
Cognitive'stage -requires#the#active#thinking#to#encode#skills
The#brain#has#formed#specific#combinations#and#is#recalling# them#as#
directed
Associative'stage-learners#being#using#stereotyped#actions#when#performing#
the#skills#and#rely#less#on#actively#recalled# memories#of#rules
Producing#very#rapid#sequences#of#precisely#timed#combinations#of#the#
movements#to#achieve#specific#outcomes
Choking#under#pressure#-when#you#think#too#much#about#what#you#are#
doing#when#you#perform#a#skill#which#impairs#performance
Autonomous'stage-the#stage#at#which#the#skill#or#subcomponents#of#the#skill#
have#become#motor#programs
Stages%of%Acquisition%(see%book%pp.%319-321)
Neuroscientists#hope#to#associate#skill#acquisition#stages#with#changes#in#brain#
activity
Spinal'cord'and'brain'stem -play#a#critical#role#in#the#performance#of#
perceptual-motor#skills#by#control#and#coordinate#skill#movements
In#fact,#most#cortical#areas#send#inputs#to#the#basal#ganglia
§
The#basal#ganglia#receive# large#numbers#of#inputs#from#the#cortical#
neurons
Relay#sensory#information#form#cortex#to#thalamus#and#brain#stem
Initiating#and#maintaining#movements
Particularly#important#for#controlling#the#velocity,#direction#and#amplitude#
of#movements,#as#well#as#preparing#to#move
Acquiring##information#about#what#would#happen#when#we#behave#during#
a#certain#context
Active#when#individuals#learned#to#make#judgements
Basal'ganglia -clusters#of#neurons#at#base#of#forebrain#close#to#hippocampus
Striatum -initially#processes#cortical#inputs#and#plays#an#important#role#in#
operant#conditioning
Important#for#learning#movement#sequences#that#require#precise#timing
Also#important#for#tasks#that#involve#aiming#at#or#tracking#a#target
Cerebellum -plays#a#key#role#in#learning#to#predict#important#events,#especially#
the#formation,#execution,#and#timing#of#conditioned#response
Dopamine#-VTA,#SN
Acetylcholine#-PPT,#PDT
Norepinephrine#-LC
Serotonin
Neural%Substrates
Video#game#paying#proficiency#requires#perceptual-motor#and#cognitive#skill#
development
Visual#attention#abilities#improves#with#playing#high-action#video#games
Video%Games%Good%for%the%Brain?
Animals#with#little#cortex#learn#mazes#or#lever#pressing
Has#inputs#from#spinal#cords,#sensory#systems#and#cerebral#Cortez
Has#outputs#to#spinal#cord#and#cortical#motor#system
Important#in#learning#precisely#time#movement#sequences
Cerebellum#is#important#in#encoding#and#retrieving#skill#memories
The%Cerebellum%and%Timing
We#need#sensory#motor#feedback#to#acquire#skills
Sensorimotor#circuits#required#for#learning#skills
Basal#ganglia#are#important#for#initiation#and#maintaining#movement
Dame#to#basal#ganglia#impairs#goal-directed#locomotion
Cortical#plasticity#compensate#for#damage#to#the#basal#ganglia
Neoplastic%changes%in%the%brain%following%motor%skill%learning
We#need#to#do#something#to#coordinate#muscular#movements#in#the#periphery
Plasticity#occurs#(see#slides)
Blocking#the#action#of#the#ion#exchangers#results#in#longer#Ca2+#retention#in#the#
terminal
53:15#-recording#about#Ca2+
What%happens%in%the%periphery?
Read%chapter%8
Skill%Memory%and%Sleep
Tuesday,# November# 4,#2014 10:57#AM
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