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Lecture 4

PSY336H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Chill-Out Music, Motivation, Midlife Crisis

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Dan Dolderman

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Lecture 4 Positive Psychology
Don’t surrender your loneliness so quickly let it cut more deep let it ferment and season you. As
few human, or even divine ingredients cans. – Hafie
Energy Within Psychology – the feelings of vitality (zest) is really important
Not the same as happiness
Ppl usually don’t feel vital unless it’s a task they’re doing for autonomous reasons
(intrinsically motivated to)
Plays a role in theories of self-regulation (ego-depletion framework)
Loss of vitality – when you do stuff that you don’t have control over (someone told you
When ppl do things for intrinsic reasons they don’t show ego depletion
oCan be as simple as going for a walk or as effortful as playing video games
oPpl gravitate towards things which are inherently fascinating
ADHD kids have no problem playing video games (bc they’re having fun)
oThey have no problem taking on projects they think is really cool
oSo the problem seems to be an energy deficit
Extrinsic motivation – when the going gets tough you bail
Autonomy, competence, relatedness? – basic human needs
oIf you have a deficit it motivates behaviour that will compensate for those deficits
oIf that need is consistently unmet – their attempt to compensate directly for those
needs fails  they will potentially internalize the feeling of being a failure
They can perhaps get overly invested in relationships (compensate thru
social connections)
Autonomy – becomes the slacker/rebel …they check out, live a wild a
free life
oPpl can lose themselves in a cause to compensate
oIf their needs are sufficiently met – allows ppl to stay true to themselves

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If needs aren’t met – extrinsic motivation  veer towards the part they lack
Positive emotions needs to outweigh negative by 3-1 in order for the person to be quite
oMost ppl – 2:1
You can predict divorce extremely well – look how couples argue about tings
o5:1 positivity bias in the way you talk you guys will probably be ok
oIf any less, the vitality will slowly be sucked away
20th century saw a lot of tension bw our obvious tendencies towards selfishness and our
somewhat occasional altruistic actions
Zebra camouflage works at the group level - when they hang out in a herd you can’t
pick out the weakest link  provides protectiveness to the herd
oEvolution for humans also operate at the group level – individually we are
oWe live at the group level – altruism & kindness starts to make some sense
The culture of honour – ppl from the south & west in US are more violent than those
from the North & the east
oHow the cultures develop – ranchers vs. farmers
Farmers tend to develop a more communal type of culture
Can’t steal others crops & also they share tools
Ranchers develop individualistic cultures based on fear
Ppl steal each others cows
oThis whole honour violence system is not necessary anymore but once that
system is in place it develops its own functional automony (even though the
students in the study were not living these farmer rancher life, but the system is
in place in their society)
Once something has eveolved it becomes a systems and then functions
in many different domains some of which are not connected to the
orginical thing
If our communal based living evolves within us kindness, altruism, then
we will show those traits
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