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Lecture 2

PSY435H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Apple Event, Compact Fluorescent Lamp, Malnutrition

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Dan Dolderman

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Env Psych – Lec 2
- Assignment: Use a social marketing approach to design a campaign with your social network in order to change an
environmental behaviour
o Usually, we try to promote pro-social behaviour
this is not the focus of our campaign
- Community based social marketing approach is suppose to be an interactive/collaborative approach
o Use more “top-down
o Not just people behind the scenes building ideas, but constructive a collaborative approach
o People in your population should want to be active members to the campaign
- Take a strict behavioural approach
o You have to design what behaviours that need to be changed
o And for each of these behaviours, you have to do a specific analysis of each behaviour
- In the most broad sense, you are trying to get people to be involved in some form of system change activism
o A lot of the problems right now require changes in the macro level, that we individuals have no direct control over
o In order for the change to happen, you have to change the top. In order to change the top, you have to change the
- The challenge becomes: how do you get people involved in a system change?
o Involves 2 levels
What do you think activism is?? (the foundation)
Joining an organization, signing petitions, protesting in the streets, etc.
The more challenging level (what makes it awesome): how do you get activism to go viral
How do you get people talking to one another in order to get the message to pass on
This is something a lot of people are doing (e.g. Obama)
This is the magic
These are the “active” activisms
- When you take a behavioural analysis, it changes the level of analysis you’re thinking about
o E.g. you decide that people in your community don’t know the problems with climate change
The key parts of your campaign would be “raising awareness”
What do the people have to do in order to raise awareness?
o One of the things they might have to do is to learn, which means reading your pamphlet
that you’re given, or attending a workshop, or going to your party (luring them with free
beer ehuhuh)
The problem with just making a pamphlet and just putting it in a mailbox is that most people don’t look at
it, even if there is $3 million
Thus, it comes down to how to making viral
o Get people talking to one another, does it mean having a specific conversation with
them, invite them to workshop, inviting to hand out pamphlet, etc.
This is an iterative process, you sit with your group and then you find out what each member of the group
has what opinion
- What you need to figure out in this assignment is
o What behaviours do you need to target
o In order to do that, you need sensitivity
People do an impact by probability check
It’s a heuristic decision making guide that you are brainstorming behaviours that you think
people might engage in and estimating what is the probability of getting people to perform the
behaviour and what kind of impact will it have on others
E.g. getting people to adopt proactive behaviours (reducing carbon footprint)
You can get people to recycle more (prob = super high, impact = super low)
I want to get people to go vegan, all the way (impact = very high, prob = very low)
You can get people to meatless Monday (impact = lower than vegan, prob = higher), etc.
You are trying to map out impact vs probability of all the behaviours you can think of
The reason people do this is that organizations usually think of the “sexy stuff” because they
have an agenda, they want to get press, etc.
They typically up the impact scale and do big things
o The problem with doing big things that you want people to do often have low
o If too extreme high and low in impact and probability, the chances of engagement will
be low

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Thus, you have to decide what your ideal is. There is no right answer, however you must have
- The goal of this impact vs probability is so that you want people to engage such behaviours
o E.g. you want to have a recycling campaign (super high probability that people will engage in such behaviour) and
then use that momentum in order to gear your population to do something else (e.g compost), then leading to
other behaviours in order to get them to the final behaviour you wanted people to do
This is a classic example of foot-in-the-door strategy
o E.g. join my cult straight up? No….
First, join my club, go to the party
There are no secrets here but this is a deception method
- First, you brainstorm behaviours that would encourage people to engage in social activism
o In social marketing you start seeing social connections between the behaviours
o Breaks your pre-existing frame and forces you to think more creatively and broadly
o So you might get 5-10 behaviours in the impact/prob design
o Remember to justify your behaviours through a written spew
- The point of this exercise is to select the appropriate behaviours to target for change
o Behaviour selection is so important but it is often ignored
o You can more effectively reach your goal if you select your behaviours properly
- Once you have your behaviours (read pamphlet, go to party), you go through a behaviourist approach
o You have a bunch of reasons why people would do this, or a bunch of reason why people won’t do that
o You need to know the reasons as they are the drivers to behaviour
Thus, you do a barriers vs benefits analysis
Choose a couple of representative behaviours and do the analysis
Barriers: the things that hold you back
Benefits: the potential things that motivate you to perform a behaviour
- There are all these kinds of benefits (e.g. getting people involved in campaign)
o The most obvious benefit is changing the system, feeling connected to people, making friends, feeling a sense of
empowerment, having fun, being a rebel, being healthy, making money
o There is also intangible benefits: feeling sense of personal satisfaction, sense of meaning
o You can’t know what the benefits are unless you start talking to people
The reason for this is that maybe if your population is a bunch of middle age/older people, you might find
the benefits would be like “leaving a legacy” or “professional network
If you talk in our age group, maybe they’re thinking having “fun, being rebellious”
*Each population is different, such that their benefits and barriers are different from one another
- Knowing the benefits is essential in marketing
o It is key to making your messages directed to your population
Not only what is your behaviour but WHY (which are the benefits)
- Knowing your barriers has more emphasis
o The idea behind barriers is that there are many reasons why people might NOT perform a behaviour
o As a starting point, why do people do things they do?? It’s because we believe it’s the right thing to do (which
means these individuals have a positive attitude towards these behaviours)
o So we should just change the attitudes of people in order to change behaviour!
No! The problem with this is that attitudes have marginal weak influence on behaviour
o The Theory of Planned Behaviour
It’s not a theory that is not automatic
It’s a theory of intentional chosen behaviour (I’m going to do this)
What are the drivers of planned behaviour?
And other drivers too! This is important because let’s say you have a campaign and you changed
the attitudes. However, this change is caused by a different driver, which essentially is not
supposed to change the behaviour. This is a problem that happens all the time
- E.g. mid 1970s, you are trying to promote a government and population at the time.Saving energy saves you money” =
this is a no brainer. There are specific behaviours people can do in order to achieve saving energy, saving money. This is not
o So they put together this workshop and went into people’s home and had 2-3 hours with each homeowner (which
is never going to happen now) on a pilot study, did some surverys before and after (attitudes, intentions, and teach
them specific behavioural strategies in order to save money).
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