RSM225H1 Lecture Notes - Umbrella Brand, Reinforcement, Classical Conditioning

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Published on 26 Nov 2012
Learning: a relatively permanent change in behavior that is caused by experience
- Incidental learning: learn when not trying; consumers recognize brand names/hum
product jingles, even for product categories they do not use
- Behavioral learning theories: assume that learning occurs as the result of responses to
external events
1. Classical conditioning: occur when a stimulus that elicits a response is paired
with another stimulus that initially does not elicit a response on its own. Over time
the second stimulus causes a similar response
meat powder: unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
bell : conditioned stimulus (CS)
drooling: conditioned response (CR)
conditioning effects are more likely to occur after the
conditioned/unconditioned stimuli have been paired a number of times
repeated exposures increase the strength of stimulus=response associations
and prevent the decay of these associations
extinction: when the effects of prior conditioning are reduced/disappeared
stimulus generalization: the tendency of stimuli similar to a CS to evoke
similar conditioned responses (ex; Pavlov’s dogs salivate when they heard
noises that resembled the sound of a bell
masked branding: deliberately hide a product’s true origin
Marketing applications of classical conditioning
- these conditioned associations are crucial to many marketing strategies that rely on the
creation and perpetuation of positive brand equity, in which a brand has strong positive
associations in a consumer’s memory and commands a lot of loyalty
- the behavior of consumers can also be conditioned: slow music in grocery stores led to
longer visits
- backward conditioning: unconditioned stimulus (playing a jingle) should be prior to the
conditioned stimulus (showing a soft drink)
- because of the danger of extinction, a classical conditioning may not be as effective for
products that are frequently encountered since no guarantee they will be accompanied
by the CS
- applications of stimulus generalization
process of stimulus generalization is often central to branding/packaging
decisions, such as u of t’s merchandises with its logo on it
family branding: products capitalize on the reputation of a company name
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