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Lecture 9

Lecture 9 - Gender (Notebook Layout WITH AUDIO RECORDING)

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Christian O.Caron

Lecture 9 - Gender November 20, 2013 Administration: Move assignment part 2 under Online Lectures on blackboard Third tutorial next week Movie assignment due dec 4, hard & online copy Gender:  Virtually everything in our lives is gendered (everything is filtered through gender lenses)  People distinguish between males and females – genders evaluated differently. Gender is a master status  Gender is an integral part of the daily experiences of both women and men Neurological and Cognitive Studies  Boys and girls are not identical at birth, genetic and hormonal differences launch them down different development paths  Differences are amplified by our gender infused culture Brain Plasticity  Concept used by neurologists to explain why experience regularly changes brain structure and behaviour  Your brain is what you do with it  Every task (reading, running, debating, laundry, kissing, etc, reinforces active brain circuits at the expense of other inactive ones Clicker Question: 1  What name do sociologists give to the attitudes, behaviour, and activities that are socially defined as appropriate for each sex and are learned through the socialization process  Answer: Gender Roles Sex Versus Gender  Sociologists use the terms sex and gender to distinguish biological sex identity and learned gender roles  A person is born male or female )or intersexted) but becoming a man or a woman is the result of social and cultural expectations that pattern men’s and women’s behaviour, attitudes and physical experience  Your sex depends on whether you were born with male or female genitals (genetics)  Your gender depends on cultural and socially constructed differences between the two. Meanings, beliefs, practices associated with femininity and masculinity Transgender and Transsexual: Category Breaking  Transsexual: believe they were born with the wrong body. They identify themselves as the other sex.  Transgender: people break society’s gender norms by defying the rigid distinction between the genders. For ex) when one’s gender identity does not match one’s assigned sex th  Transgender Day of Remembrance (Nov 20 ): to remember people killed as a result of trans phobia. Gender Identity  is a persons perception of the self as a male or female  is basic to our: o 1. Self concept o 2. Shapes our expectations for ourselves o 3. Abilities and Interests o 4. How we interact with others Clicker Question 2:  Where does gender-appropriate behaviour come from  Answer: We learn it through the socialization process Gender Socialization  Women and men learn the expectations associated with their sex  Parents: physical contact, compliments, toys  Peers: How children play with one another  Schools: Teachers, books, class experience  Mass Media: how women and men are portrayed in terms of occupations and roles, main characters, cultural ideal of womanhood and manhood Bechdel Test  Alison Bechdel invented a test with 3 criteria for movies  1. Are there 3 named female characters  2. Who talk to each other  3) About something other than a man Sex and Gender: Through Prism of Difference  Contemporary gender relations are complex – be wary of simplistic slogans  Thinking of gender primarily as the difference between men and women essentializes them – overgeneralizes about both  Gender is organized and experienced differently when refracted through the prism of sexual, racial, social class, abilities, age, national differences Masculinity  is not a fixed or biological essence of men – is a social construction that shifts and changes over time as well as between and among various national cultural contexts  Power is central to understanding gender as a relational construct – masculinity is defined in contrast to femininity  No singular male sex role – various masculinities Sexism  Subordination of one sex, usually female, based on assumed superiority  Sexism towards women has three components: 1. Negative attitudes toward women 2. Stereotypical beliefs that reinforce and justify the prejudice 3. Discrimination, acts that exclu
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