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-not collecting the precipitate
-dont have to take the time to make a really good quality ppt
-volume is the data
-Titration= addition of measurments of a reagent solution
-Titrant- reagent solution (known conc)
-Indicator- observable property (colour) that changes NEAR the equivalence point
-NEAR bc how good are these indicators--> picking an indicator that changes colour near pH of your end
-Equivalance point: when quantity of titrant is added in exact amount needed for stoichiometric rxn with analyte.
True end of titration
-Endpoint- where indicator changes colour.
-reaction must be fast and complete
-2 ways to ﬁnd endpoint:
-Measure a signal while doing the titration, keep going until signal doesn't change any more then plot signal
on y axis vs volume of titrant and ﬁnd endpoint graphically.
2 Types of methods:
-Direct titration- add titrant from buret until run complete
-Back titration- add a known amount of reagent to the analyte
-let them react
-then titrate the leftover of the 1st reagent with a 2nd reagent
Amount of analyte= amount of 1st reagent-amount of second reagent
-use when reaction is not fast or is not easy to ﬁnd the end point
Precipitation Titration Curve
-The titrant is X and pX is the amount of X left in solutions-not the total amount of X added as some is used to