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Olfaction and Taste

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Biological Sciences
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Outline of Lecture 68 (03-27 C; Ronnett) Olfaction and Taste I. Olfaction A) Anatomy - Primary olfactory neurons project through cribriform plate of ethmoid to the olfactory bulb - The olfactory brain is called the rhinencephalon - Olfactory epithelium is made of - sustentacular cells: supportive role - olfactory receptor neurons: capable of regenerating (unique in the CNS) - global basal cells: source of new ORNs B) Odorant recognition in the ORN - Detection: odorant binds receptor  G-protein  AC  cAMP  ion channel opening - Desensitization: 1) phosphorylation of receptor by GRKs or β-ARKs, OR 2) uncoupling of receptor from G-protein by arrestins C) Central processing of olfaction - Uniquely, there is no recognized olfactory topographic map, except for evidence that same areas of neuroepithelium project to same glomerulus in olfactory bulb - ORN  mitral or small tufted cells (in glomeruli)  olfactory tract 1) Anterior olfactory nucleus  contralateral olfactory bulb 2) Olfactory tubercle and pyriform cortex: conscious perception of odor 3) Amygdala and entorhinal cortex: affective response to odor D) Diseases of olfaction - There are a wide variety of ways hyposmia or anosmia results, e.g. from endocrine insufficiency,
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