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41-110 (21)
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Lecture

obtaining finances

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Department
Economics
Course
41-110
Professor
Habetler
Semester
Fall

Description
Types of Finance - Introduction A brief description of the key features of the main sources of business finance is provided below. Venture Capital Venture capital is a general term to describe a range of ordinary and preference shares where the investing institution acquires a share in the business. Venture capital is intended for higher risks such as start up situations and development capital for more mature investments. Replacement capital brings in an institution in place of one of the original shareholders of a business who wishes to realise their personal equity before the other shareholders. There are over 100 different venture capital funds in the UK and some have geographical or industry preferences. There are also certain large industrial companies which have funds available to invest in growing businesses and this 'corporate venturing' is an additional source of equity finance. Grants and Soft Loans Government, local authorities, local development agencies and the European Union are the major sources of grants and soft loans. Grants are normally made to facilitate the purchase of assets and either the generation of jobs or the training of employees. Soft loans are normally subsidised by a third party so that the terms of interest and security levels are less than the market rate. There are over 350 initiatives from the Department of Trade and Industry alone so it is a matter of identifying which sources will be appropriate in each case. Invoice Discounting and Invoice Factoring Finance can be raised against debts due from customers via invoice discounting or invoice factoring, thus improving cash flow. Debtors are used as the prime security for the lender and the borrower may obtain up to about 80 per cent of approved debts. In addition, a number of these sources of finance will now lend against stock and other assets and may be more suitable then bank lending. Invoice discounting is normally confidential (the customer is not aware that their payments are essentially insured) whereas factoring extends the simple discounting principle by also dealing with the administration of the sales ledger and debtor collection. Hire Purchase and Leasing Hire purchase agreements and leasing provide finance for the acquisition of specific assets such as
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