Class Notes (839,394)
Canada (511,324)
Psychology (550)
46-236 (15)
Vokes (1)
Lecture 1

Psychology 46-236 Lecture 1: All Lectures Notes

11 Pages

Course Code

This preview shows pages 1,2 and half of page 3. Sign up to view the full 11 pages of the document.
All Lectures Notes With what will we be dealing?  Culture and social reality  Social power  Identity and organizations of self  Aggression  Altruism  Conflict and conflict resolution  Love and intimate relationships  Prejudice and hate  Leadership and shaping social reality What is reality?  Interpretation of our environment, picking up cues from senses, the here and now  Brain is hardwired to make sense of the world, also to ensure the reality is being sensed  What's happening? The meaning? What to do about it?  What you believe in will shape your reality, everyone's reality is different from one another  Different reality changes perception/point of view  Reality --> what one believes what's possible Who gets to say what is real?  Religion (Deity --> scriptures/sacred writings --> Clerics --> answers the "big why" questions)  Science (Experimental Method --> Scientific literature --> Scientists --> answers the "big how" questions) Evolving Reality (changes over time)  Trephining --> to release the evil spirit, an act of love  1500s --> torture the body to release the demon Contrasting Ethical Realities  Reality is about our perception  Ex. the reality of spider-man vs. real spiders  Evolving relationship of Peter Parker and Mary Jane Watson in spiderman 1 vs. 2 o Peter lies to Mary Jane in order to leave her because Mary Jane thinks the identity of spider-man will put her in danger o Counter reality about power  the power to make the decision  Different versions of reality: The power makes the decisions or the individual makes the decision when told the risks involved Model of Professional Ethics (not tested on; examples)  Traditional Model  authority has control  Emerging Model Reality as a Source of Comfort and Distress  Our brain does not like uncertainty  The human condition is to believe - beliefs are just theories that we too frequently forget are theories and take to be reality.  We crave certainty, so we invest in our beliefs to avert the stress and anxiety of lingering ambiguity and uncertainty  A cultural accomplishment  norms, rituals of one culture o Ex. where to find particular things in a house such as key to the house, socks, toothbrush  Family  community  culture  Culture is an influence, but does not necessarily control you  Different units function differently (ex. military)  You don’t HAVE a culture, you DO culture (you act according to its norms)  The culture tells us what to do, does not tell us WHY, but still functional  The culture shapes our action, even if we don't know why we don't know  Different cultural knowledge  Everyone is cultural wired (even wild child)  Culture is transmitted through family, generation, consequences  Different culture has different gestures, language The Nature of Culture  Forming culture under different circumstances; we make culture (active social experience)  To have a culture and do culture means culture is outside of our control, but it's not the case, we do culture  Once we know it, we can do culture in the present  What defines normal (or conforming) and deviant is about what the majority of the culture does, the minority stands out  It is preconscious (it is in our memory, once recalled, we bring it to our consciousness)  Paradox  being the opposites both at the same time (ex. something that is good and evil at the same time)  Culture is changing but still works to recreate the past in the present Cultures of Dysfunction  Internal competition  fighting internally  Careerism  only care about benefits for self  Cynicism  high defense mechanism  Abuse of power  abusing power  Collective paranoia   Survival of the fittest  Bystanders  do not volunteer for nothing  Blame storming  when something's wrong, we turn the blame to others  The psychological bottom line? MISTRUST  Changing culture o Social acceptance o Technology (TED talk) o Legislation o Nothing about the culture is stable o To maintain something, must put energy into it o Access to food, education system, health care  Social power o Power is, by whatever means, the production (or prevention) of intended effects. - Bertrand Russell o Bertrand Russell  Mid-20th Western philosopher o Talked the least in psychology o It takes power to prevent change and maintain things o It exists in people; everyone is powerful, but what if we did not care? o 6th/7th years  most powerful years of presidency  9 forms of Social Power o Base power  Reward  based on a desire for a reward offered in return for compliance  Coercive  based on a desire to avoid a consequence threatened to gain compliance  Either reward or punish you to achieve something o Source power  Legitimate  based on the acceptance of the right or privilege of an authority figure or group by virtue of complementary roles in a given cultural space (ex. boss-employee, officer-solider, teacher-student, parent-child)  Expert  based on the perception of a superior knowledge-base possessed by another person or group which one regards as useful or desirable (ex. professionals, those with many years of experience)  Informational  based on the perception that a person or group has information that one does not have, and which one views as useful or desirable (ex. news media, data-base holders, workplace gossip, spies)  Reciprocal  based on an agreement to return, gain or exchange a favour in its reward form, or an understanding of the mutual ability to withhold, block or retaliate in its coercive form (ex. buyer-seller, politicians)  Referent  based on a desire to be like and/or accepted by the person or group, or out of a liking and/or respect for the person or group (ex. "peer pressure", celebrity status, friendship) o Composite power  reality-shaping  based on a willingness to adopt a presented view of reality, alter an opinion or outlook, or change a belief system (ex. compelling reasoning, emotional appeals, illustrative behaviour)  Network  based on the perception of the value of a network of relationships with others who are perceived to be powerful in this as well as in terms of the other 8 forms of power The dynamics of Power  When we lose power, our self-esteem is diminished  We want to gain that power again  Ex. getting cut off when driving; this is where road rage comes from because our power is diminished  We have a preconscious fear of loss of power  A glare  coercive power  Most people who have power are more aware of the power they don't have Black Eyed Peas - Pump it  Coercive power  Violence  Referent power  A child being cute  Reward power, referent power The Uniqueness of Referent Power  It is the one form of social power that you don't really notice…but if and when you do notice, you don't really mind anyway.  Increasing power in class: o Expert, informational, legitimate power  Power & Esteem: It's not about the object, it's about one's power exerting on others  Passive aggressive: you know what you're doing but you're hiding what you're doing o A strategy to take our power back Aggression  Most aggression is goal-directed  Aggression have so many antecedents (things that can cause one thing)  ex. pain  Typical definition of aggression  behaviour directed toward another intended to harm  There is no power embedded in aggression  Why do social scientists study aggression and violence? o Understand the motives o Why people have more aggression than others and vice versa o Aggression is usually seen as negative, a problem o Social scientists are mostly driven by the white middle classes; what does aggression mean to that class? Threatens the social order o To reduce it!  Competing realities o Children's mental health centres from 3 perspectives Mainstream Explanations  Aggression as instinct/drive (hardwired: Frustration  aggression hypothesis)  Physiological influences on aggression (biological pathology  ex. brain tumour on amygdala)  Social-developmental issues (dysfunctional socialization)  A personality trait (undesirable personal need/tendency)  Cultural inequities (inherent social forces that deny some access to resources)  Media (glorification of violence)  Firearms (availability of tools of aggression)  Violence towards women (testosterone & gender stereotypes  a sick society) Mainstream Solutions  The deglorification of violence  Gun control  Parent training  Reduction of social and ethnic inequalities  Hormone therapy  International diplomacy  But what if you live in a culture that is engaged in constant conflict?  Then the "problem" of violence and aggression might be framed in very different terms Solutions for a Lack of Violence and Aggression  The glorification of violence  Gun propagation  Parent training  …. Hardwired for Violence and Aggression?  We might be hardwired but other aspects releases our aggression  We are also wired not to act on aggression  It is actually very hard to turn a civilian into a soldier  Stats: only 40% of soldiers fire their weapons o This raises to 70% if you put two people as a team (it increases the likelihood of shooting: To protect their partner, not to let the other one down)  Are we hardwired for violence and aggression? Yes…but we are equally hardwired for empathy and cooperation  We have the capacity for both but we can choose which we will enact and when we will enact them. Nothing is inevitable, and the cultures we choose to create foster both in different ways and in different measure. Pay it forward  Is it possible?  Something could be big to one person could be small to someone else I'll pay forward if someone pays it to me   Issue about self-interest  Power equity  the giver has more power than the receiver  Cultural study on what defines a good person  generous, kind, open  selfless  Linear causality  ex. ball A hits stationary ball B, ball B moves o Both is transformed in the contact o We watch the transformation o What causes what  Ball A: causes, Ball B: pro-social behaviours  mutual causality  Person who's paying it forward is affected too  We tend to look at the effects at the person receiving the help  Sense-making  active process of interpreting our environment; different from making sense (being rational) Cultural realities defining "the good"  Egocentric  good for my people  Sociocentric  good for all people in one society  Worldcentric  good across all cultures (ex. Internet)  Kosmocentric  good across all cultures and societies  Social psychology  blind to kosmocentric, being placed somewhere in the middle between egocentric and worldcentric  We usually forget Ball A  Just-world Hypothesis (just-world fallacy)  we have the power to make the world just, thus, we believe the world should be just  We control our behaviours in order to stay away from bad things, we believe the world isn't just even if we stay away from bad things  Ex. I should not smoke so I won't get lung cancer. If I don’t smoke and still get lung cancer, that is not just.  The world is not just, bad things do happen to good people  We use our powers to make the world more just  The reality is fundamentally in question  Sense-making process (we process all these at once in our brain automatically): o Needs of the others vs. needs of myself o My ability to help (how to help) o Capacity to help (how much I could help) o Deservingness of others to receive help o Definition of the situation according to others' reactions  the bystanders effect (if others are helping) o Social expectations (social roles) o Personal expectation (personal identity)  "I feel good when I help someone" or "I helped because I don't want the world to have people who don't help" Bystander Intervention  Conformity  the more people are present, the less likely anyone would step in and do something  Knowledge to the phenomenon will increase the likelihood of you being involved if the same situation happens to you  Proof that altruism exists  we just act in urgent situation, we don't care about other risks, we just act  People who
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2 and half of page 3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.