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Lecture

Psychology 46-339 Perception Notes

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Department
Psychology
Course
46-339
Professor
Blais
Semester
Winter

Description
Unit
7
Notes:

Perception
 
 Thresholds
 • threshold
(or
limen)‐‐the
point
when
a
psychological
and/or
physiological
effect
is
produced
 – absolute
threshold‐‐the
least
amount
of
a
stimulus
needed
to
trigger
a
sensory
perception
(e.g.
 a
candle
at
one
mile
away)
 – difference
threshold
(or
just
noticeable
difference)‐‐the
least
amount
of
difference
between
two
 stimuli
for
perception
to
occur
 

 The
Eye
 • the
structures
of
the
eye
from
the
diagram
are
as
follows:
 – lens:
focuses
the
image
onto
the
retina
 – pupil:
regulates
the
amount
of
light
entering
the
eye;
full
dark
adaptation
takes
about
30
 minutes
and
light
adaptation
about
1
minute
 – iris:
the
colored
part
of
the
eye
 – cornea:
the
soft,
outer,
protective
covering
of
the
eye
 – retina:
contains
photoreceptor
cells,
rods
(which
detect
brightness
contrasts)
and
cones
 (which
detect
color)
 – fovea:
an
area
of
the
retina
that
contains
all
cones
and
no
rods
 – optic
nerve:
relays
visual
information
to
the
brain
 – blind
spot:
where
the
optic
nerve
connects
to
the
back
of
the
eye
 
 The
Visual
Cortex
 • information
travels
from
the
eyes
to
various
parts
of
the
brain:
 – the
thalamus
 – the
visual
cortex
of
the
occipital
lobe
 
 • Hubel
and
Wiesel
have
developed
the
feature
detection
theory‐‐there
are
certain
cells
in
the
visual
 cortex
that
are
sensitive
to
certain
features
of
a
stimulus
 • they
determined
there
were
three
types
cells
in
the
visual
cortex:
 – simple‐‐provide
information
about
the
position
and
boundaries
of
a
stimuli
 – complex‐‐provide
advanced
information
about
position
such
as
movement
 – hypercomplex‐‐provide
abstract
information
such
as
shape
or
size
 
 Color
Perception
 • subtractive
color
mixtures
deal
primarily
with
mixing
pigments
(e.g.
blue
and
yellow
mixed
 together
make
green)
 • additive
color
mixtures
deal
primarily
with
mixing
lights
(e.g.
combining
a
green
and
red
light
will
 give
you
yellow)
 
 • there
are
two
main
theories
of
color
perception:
 – trichromatic
(or
Young‐Helmholtz)
theory:
all
color
perception
derives
from
three
different
 color
receptors
in
the
retina
(usually
red,
blue
and
green);
while
this
theory
can
physically
 recreate
the
spectrum
of
colors,
much
like
your
TV
set
does,
it
cannot
explain
color
blindness
 or
negative
afterimages
 
 – opponent
process
theory:
three
sets
of
color
receptors
(blue‐yellow,
red‐green,
black‐white)
 respond
to
determine
the
color
you
experience;
explains
both
color
blindness
(which
tends
to
 be
either
blue‐yellow,
red‐green,
or
full
color
blindness)
and
negative
afterimages;
this
was
 proposed
by
Ewald
Hering
 
 Adaptation
and
Habituation
 • adaptation‐‐the
process
by
which
you
sensory
systems
adjust
to
changes
in
the
environment
(e.g.
 light
and
dark
adaptation)
 • habituation‐‐the
process
by
which
you
“tune
out”
distracting
stimuli
in
your
environment
 • dishabituation‐‐the
process
by
which
you
suddenly
“tune
back
in”
to
new
stimuli
(such
as
 someone
calling
yo
More Less

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