Biology 2581B Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Chloroplast Dna, Intracellular Parasite, Chlorarachniophyte

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11 Feb 2016
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Lecture 4: Organelles and Their Genomes
-Non-photosynthetic eukaryote engulng a cyanobacterium
occurred once
-Non-photosynthetic eukaryote engulng a photosynthetic
eukaryote has occurred multiple times  2* chloroplasts
responsible for most photosynthesis
- Plasmodium:
-Deadliest parasite, causes malaria
-Has a nucleus, mitochondria, and 2* chloroplast – has a
genome, no longer photosynthetic, and came from red
algae
-Use 2* chloroplast as a drug target
- Toxoplasma:
-Kills immunocompromised people
-Same story as Plasmodium
How many distinct genomes can a eukaryote have? 1-4
2: humans, mushrooms, jellysh, etc. 3: plants, algae,
malaria
1: Microsporidia – intracellular parasitic
fungus
-Has to live in small spaces
inside other cells  strong
selective pressure for genome
and size to be reduced  very
small nuclear genome and
complete loss of mitochondrial
genome
-Free-living fungus  pushed
towards parasitism 
intracellular parasite 
mitochondrial gene loss 
evolutionary ratchet prevents
return to free-living
Endosymbiotic gene transfer and
loss has gone to completion.
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