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Lesson 5 Lecture Notes

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Classical Studies
Classical Studies 2800A/B
David Lamari

Affixes • Affix - anything attached to a stem • Prefix - before a stem • Suffix - after a stem • Infix - within a stem Inceptive Verbs Verbs that denote the beginning of a language that are characterized by the infix -sc- just before the ending of the infinitive. Some have companion verbs without the infix. Sc- also means "to know". • Nasci, natus (beginning to be born) • Adolescere, adultus beginning to mature) • Candescere (being to glow) • Florescere (begin to blossom) • Irasci, iratus (begin to become angry) • Obsolescere, obsoletus (begin to wear out, go out of style) • Valescere, (begin to gain strength) Examples Convalesce -con- to grow together -sc- to begin to Coalesce -begin to grow together Convalescent, convalescence -ent - ing -en- - ing, ce - act of -esc - beginning to Candescent (A1) -cand - to glow or to shine -escent - beginning to Obsolete vs. obsolescent -obsolescent is beginning to become obsolete Suffixes Attached to Verbs -id or -or Latin words were often formed from the stem of infinitives ending in -ere with the suffix - or or -id in English. Id < idus (adj. forming). -Or < -or, -oris (abstract noun-forming). Examples Candere - "glow/shine": candid "frank, sincere" or candor "frankness" Florere - "blossom": florid "flowery, ruddy" Tumere - "be swollen": tumid, "swollen" or tumour "a swelling" Valere - "be strong, healthy": valid "strong, justifiable, legal" or valour "strength of mind, bravery" Languid - pertaining to drooping or languor "act of drooping" Note: -or an also mean "somebody who is", for example a doctor is somebody who is educated. -ish -ish < -ire, -ere (not a suffix). • -ish means nothing in english when attached to Latin stems so if you come across -ish, just ignore it! • Languere > languish - means to droop. Analyze the stem and ignore the -ish. • L. perire "vanish, die": perish • L. reliquere "leave behind": relinquish • L. evanescere "begin to disappear": vanish -age -age < -aticum (noun-forming) • "thing pertaining to" or "characterized by" • Umbrage "shady" from umbra • Village "pertaining to a village" from villa • Luggage - "pertaining to draggage" • Foliage - "pertaining to leaves" • Carnage - "pertaining to flesh" • Garbage • Garage - "pertaining to or characterized by covering" • Postage Fac-, Ficient-, Fic-, Fact-, Fect-, Fict-: to make or to do • Maleficient - making evil • Beneficient - to make good • Efface - to rub out • Fictio
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