• Affix - anything attached to a stem
• Prefix - before a stem
• Suffix - after a stem
• Infix - within a stem
Verbs that denote the beginning of a language that are characterized by the infix -sc-
just before the ending of the infinitive. Some have companion verbs without the infix.
Sc- also means "to know".
• Nasci, natus (beginning to be born)
• Adolescere, adultus beginning to mature)
• Candescere (being to glow)
• Florescere (begin to blossom)
• Irasci, iratus (begin to become angry)
• Obsolescere, obsoletus (begin to wear out, go out of style)
• Valescere, (begin to gain strength)
-con- to grow together
-sc- to begin to
-begin to grow together
-ent - ing
-en- - ing, ce - act of
-esc - beginning to
-cand - to glow or to shine
-escent - beginning to
Obsolete vs. obsolescent
-obsolescent is beginning to become obsolete
Suffixes Attached to Verbs
-id or -or
Latin words were often formed from the stem of infinitives ending in -ere with the suffix -
or or -id in English. Id < idus (adj. forming). -Or < -or, -oris (abstract noun-forming).
Examples Candere - "glow/shine": candid "frank, sincere" or candor "frankness"
Florere - "blossom": florid "flowery, ruddy"
Tumere - "be swollen": tumid, "swollen" or tumour "a swelling"
Valere - "be strong, healthy": valid "strong, justifiable, legal" or valour "strength of mind,
Languid - pertaining to drooping or languor "act of drooping"
Note: -or an also mean "somebody who is", for example a doctor is somebody who is
-ish < -ire, -ere (not a suffix).
• -ish means nothing in english when attached to Latin stems so if you come
across -ish, just ignore it!
• Languere > languish - means to droop. Analyze the stem and ignore the -ish.
• L. perire "vanish, die": perish
• L. reliquere "leave behind": relinquish
• L. evanescere "begin to disappear": vanish
-age < -aticum (noun-forming)
• "thing pertaining to" or "characterized by"
• Umbrage "shady" from umbra
• Village "pertaining to a village" from villa
• Luggage - "pertaining to draggage"
• Foliage - "pertaining to leaves"
• Carnage - "pertaining to flesh"
• Garage - "pertaining to or characterized by covering"
Fac-, Ficient-, Fic-, Fact-, Fect-, Fict-: to make or to do
• Maleficient - making evil
• Beneficient - to make good
• Efface - to rub out