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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 Oct 9, 2013.docx

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History of Science
History of Science 2220

October 9, 2013 His 2220: Lecture 5 Medieval Medicine • Dichotomy takes place – exists between ideals of Hippocratic medicine and doctrines of Christianity o Christians – medicine to suit their spiritual beliefs European Middle Ages (500 to 1500) • Roman empire ended • By 4 century see division of the empire between East and West • East: becomes known as Visentine Empire • West: enters era of the “Dark Ages” o Dark ages bc not a lot of info written down, therefore not a lot of documents, scriptures etc. – period of intellectual darkness and economic regression occurs • The Crusades, 1096 – 1291ish – persecution of the Muslims by the Christians – purpose was to reclaim the holy land – Christians wanted to reclaim the land – a religious war lead by catholic church to take over the Visentine’s • Movement of disease with the Crusaders (moving from the West into the East) • 1300: crusade becomes less significant but by this point, there is spread of medical knowledge and disease Medicine in the Medieval World • Transition – changes way medicine is thought about and practiced • Medicine = secular learning o As secular learning, considered inferior to theology (study of God) among Christians o Within Christian – act of seeking health became problematic – healing was good, considered act of love –but being healed except by God and his servants was not necessarily good (who was doing the healing caused problems) October 9, 2013 o Also start to see the return of the idea that disease is seen as sin or punishment o Disease also seen as test of faith o Majority of people were not saints – continued to see medicine as part of normal life o Those practicing medicine, they didn’t completely abandon secular principles Hippocratic secularism vs. Christianity • Hippocrates = hard working craftsman, motivated by love of man kind • Christians = viewed Hippocrates in positive light bc want to help people for the love but could not support him if he were portrayed as a “God” of medicine o 500+ - doctors negotiate through language – can maintain autonomy and ideas of Hippocrates but had to acknowledge God as being the server of cures o Begin to see breaking down medical community vs Christian community of the view of the body  Christians taught to despise the body and it’s desires (esp sexual) but since body housed the soul, they had to treat it with a certain level of respect o Theologians  divide medicine into two categories: Religious Medicine and Human Medicine  Religious = heavenly things – relied on prayer, holy relics, exorcism  Human = Earthly things – relied on empirical methods of treatment ex: dietary management, drug, bleeding, surgical  Beliefs taught them that it was only Christ who could really cure someone – Church acted for Christ that could heal somebody without the use of Earthly medicine Universities • Despite this being dark ages, universities spring up during this time – major innovations • Start to see formal education in practice of medicine from 12 century on October 9, 2013 • majority of doctors were not trained at medical school but is still significant th • First university – 10 century in Selarno, Italy th • Selarno school survived until 18 Century but revived in 2006 Montpellier • South of France, oldest continuous medical school • Believed it’s founders were Jewish physicians • If someone were to enroll at a school – would’ve learned in Latin and enrolled at an early age—worked on things like grammar, logic, music, etc. eventually specializing in something after, such as medicine • At these medieval universities where most Greek and Latin text were recovered – these medical text were used at the time the Medical faculties were established Dissection • Rise of universities – started Dissection • Christian thought of dissection = church could not condone dissection – by disturbing the body could jeopardize salvation • Autopsy was allowed but only for Criminals, that the church could make an exception • Professor – read from book of Galen –dictating dissection to the students o Barber surgeons did actual dissecting  Part of “illiterate class” – seen as fairly inferior to those practicing medicine within universities and outside also  Barber Surgeon = called this bc same guy who is giving you a hair cut would be the same guy to dissect you – taught by apprentices not by school system • From middle ages until 18 Century – a division between Barber surgeons and medical students o Medical students  different role from barber surgeon bc they are scholarly October 9, 2013 • Even if body presents something different from what was in Galen’s book it was considered a defect because he was criminal • Dissections within universities = artistic awakening in 12 and 13 centuries: Zodiac Man • New art form that came about from dissection • Zodiac man  1491 • Explain relationship between body and external world • Also provides specific places on body where disease could be most effectively treated Guy de Chauliac, wrote Chirgurgia Magna in 14 century: 1363 • Taught publically about their experiences • His book recognized the importance of Anatomy o Now seeing recognition that the shape of body is important to understanding disease and health within the body o This book in particular dealt with topics: wounds, fractures, sores, etc. Role of Hospitals: • More like hospices – run by religious organizations • Places to bear sick and poor for people who could not look after themselves • Not until 18 century do we see hospitals belonging to municipalities and 19 th century where the began to be connected to medical education • Plague and leprosy – stand out in medieval ages o Disease characterizing a period of time o Both serve as good examples of how medicine can be socially constructed  Ideas that can be spread, social beleifs, governing perception of an illness October 9, 2013  Both cases, the social position of those suffering from both, was heavily influenced by who was suffering from it o Treatment – persecution or elimination of dangerous people and practices Black Death aka Plague th • Occurred since 6 century • No outbreaks matched the same scope of horror that did the 14 century plague o According to witnesses, European plague travelled from Asia and arrived in Genowa and Sicily, Italy o From there disease goes Northward and reaches Moscow by 1351 • Characteristic signs: “Buboes” – swelling – in lymph nodes, armpit, neck or behind ears • Plague = two different = Bubonic plague and Pneumonic Plague o Bubonic = Plague Percilus -- enters body from bite of infected flea – essentially there is an incubation period of 6 days (infected but don’t know it) then will experience pains in chest (coughing, difficulty breathing), vomit blood, high fever, develop dark splotches on the skin, may experience restlessness, anxiety, severe headaches, mental conf
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