Exam question: if you think duties of justice apply only within countries, you are: For destutt de tracy (1795), ideology is the science of ideas: the study of the origin of our ideas and their laws of operations. The aim is to improve the rationality of public discourse in the name of the process and truth. Early 1800s: napoleon supports a return to an alliance with the catholic church and tradition. Karl marx and friedrich engel"s critical perspective on ideology (1846): The ruling ideas of every age are the ideas of the ruling class. Ruling illusions that conceal exploitative social relations and provide a rationale for class oppression. False consciousness: makes the status quo seem natural. A set of ideas that provides the bases for organized political action, whether aimed at preserving, modifying, or overthrowing the existing system of power. 2- a vision of the future good society. 3- an explanation of how political change can should happen.