Psychology 1000 Lecture Notes - Curare, Memory Consolidation, Dopaminergic

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Published on 17 Apr 2013
Department
Professor
State of Consciousness
Consciousness
Subjective and Private
Dynamic
Self-reflective and central to our sense of “self”
Measuring States of Consciousness
Self-reports
Physiological Measures
Behavioral Measures
Freud’s Levels of Consciousness
The Conscious Mind
o “The tip of the iceberg”
o Current awareness of thoughts and
perceptions
The Preconscious Mind
o Outside current awareness
o Can be recalled under certain
conditions
The Unconscious Mind
o Unavailable to consciousness
o Includes instincts such as sex drive and aggression
The Cognitive Unconscious
Reisberg (1997): The cognitive unconscious works in harmony with our
conscious thoughts
o Controlled Processing: Voluntary use of attention and conscious
processing
o Automatic Processing: Activities carried out with little or not effort
which may not require or give rise to conscious awareness
The Emotional Unconscious
Unconscious processes can affect emotion and motivation
The Modular Mind
Interacting “modules” or brain networks for sensation, perception, memory,
emotions etc. alter our consciousness
Circadian Rhythms
Circadian rhythms are daily biological cycles
o Are regulated by the suprachiasmatic nuclei in
the hypothalamus
o Environmental factors like the day-night cycle
also affect circadian rhythms
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Circadian Rhythm Disruption
Seasonal Affective Disorder
o Tendency to become depressed during certain months of the year
o Linked to northern latitudes
More prevalent in Canada than the U.S
Jet Lag
o Oral Melatonin to reset circadian rhythm
Nightshift Work
o Shift to daylight savings (spring) leads to a temporary increase in
accidental deaths (Coren, 1966)
Sleep
Stages of Sleep
1. Theta Waves
2. Sleep Spindles
3. Delta Waves
4. Deep Sleep
REM. Dreams
A Typical Night’s Sleep
REM Sleep
Characteristics of REM Sleep
o REM dreams are longer than non-REM (NREM) stages
o Physiological Arousal Increases
Heart-rate quickens
Breathing more irregular and rapid
Brainwave activity resembles wakefulness
Genital Arousal
o May be involved in memory consolidation
Sleep Deprivation
Short Term
o Up to 45 hours
Long Term
o More than 45 hours without sleep
Partial
o No more than 5 hrs./night for 1 or more nights
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Sleep loss affects mood, cognitive performance and physical performance
Theories of Sleep
Restoration Model
o Sleep allows us to recharge our bodies and recover from fatigue
Evolutionary/Circadian Rhythm Model
o Sleep’s main purpose is to increase a species’ chance of survival
Sleep Disorders
Insomnia: Chronic difficulty in falling asleep
Narcolepsy: Sudden, uncontrollable sleep attacks
Sleep Apnea: Breathing stops and restarts during sleep
Sleepwalking
Nightmares and Night Terrors
Dreaming
We dream most when the brain is active (Antrobus, 1991, 1995)
o We dream more in REM than in NREM sleep
o REM sleep and dreaming
o Brain activity is also higher during the final hours of sleep
Why do we dream?
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
o Wish fulfillment
Activation-Synthesis Theory (Hobson & McCarley, 1977)
1. Brainstem bombards higher brain centers with random neural activity
2. Cerebral cortex interprets activity and creates a dream
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Document Summary

Self-reflective and central to our sense of self . The conscious mind: the tip of the iceberg , current awareness of thoughts and perceptions. The preconscious mind: outside current awareness, can be recalled under certain conditions. The unconscious mind: unavailable to consciousness. Includes instincts such as sex drive and aggression. Unconscious processes can affect emotion and motivation. Interacting modules or brain networks for sensation, perception, memory, emotions etc. alter our consciousness. Circadian rhythms are daily biological cycles: are regulated by the suprachiasmatic nuclei in the hypothalamus, environmental factors like the day-night cycle also affect circadian rhythms. Seasonal affective disorder: tendency to become depressed during certain months of the year, linked to northern latitudes. More prevalent in canada than the u. s. Jet lag: oral melatonin to reset circadian rhythm. Nightshift work: shift to daylight savings (spring) leads to a temporary increase in accidental deaths (coren, 1966) Stages of sleep: theta waves, sleep spindles, delta waves, deep sleep.

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