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Lecture 6

Psychology 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Occipital Lobe, Parietal Lobe, Frontal Lobe


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
Dr.Mike
Lecture
6

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The Brain
Review of Neurons
Drug Effects
Gross Brain Anatomy
Semi permeable membrane
o
Charge due to ions (-70 mv)
o
Action potential results from Na+ and K+ exchange
o
Neurons generate actions potentials inAll and None” fashion
o
Intensity coded as frequency
o
Neurons
Action potential “pushes” vesicles toward gap
o
Neurotransmitters diffuse across gap
o
Depolarization > EPSP
Hyper polarization > IPSP
Lock and key receptors
o
Synapse
What happens when multiples neurons synapse?
Acetycholine (ACh)
Norepineprine (NE)
Dopamine (DA)
Serotonin (5-HT) (Depression)
Gamma Amino Butyric Acid (GABA)
Neurotrasmitters
Increase r decrease amount of transmitter
o
Processes that terminate transmitter action
o
Stimulates or locks receptor sites
o
Drug Effects
Stimulates release of Dopamine (DA)
o
Prevents re-uptake
o
Dumps Dopamine, then leaves it there for a while = getting high
o
Cocaine mimics Schizophrenia
o
Cocaine:
Blocks receptor sites for Ach
o
Jungle drug
o
Stops you from moving
o
Used to paralyze
o
Used to hunt jungles in the jungle on poison tips
o
Heart will explode
o
Curare
Venom keeps dumping it, ACh deals with moving, even in the heart.
Black Widow bites you and your heart rate increases
!
Stimulates Release of Ach
o
Black Widow Venom
Covers synaptic knob so Ach can’t escape
!
Blocks release of Ach
o
Won’t stop basic bodily functions – targets specific sections of digestive
system
o
Botulism Toxin
Stimulates receptor molecules, “duplicatingeffects of ACh
o
ACh is involved in systems that help focus
o
Nicotine
Blocks Adenosine receptor sites
o
Adenosine makes you sleep, if caffeine blocks it you stay awake
o
Caffeine
How do drugs work?
Stimulates receptor molecule
!
Nicotine – agonist
o
Prevent neurotransmitter from having response you want to have
!
Block receptor sites
!
Caffeine – antagonist
o
Nicotine vs. Caffeine
All or None
o
Intensity coded as Frequency
o
All Neurons Fire i.e. generate action potentials
Different transmitters
o
Influence of receptor
o
Excitatory Neurons” VS. Inhibitory Neurons”
Depolarize Postsynaptic membrane (EPSP)
o
Excitatory Neurons”
Hyperpolarize (IPSP)
o
“Inhibitory Neurons
Graded potentials
o
Summative across space, and summative across time
o
Additive
o
EPSP’s and IPSPs are additive across space and time
IPSPs are generated and passed along neurons
o
Constant” Inhibition effectivelyraisesthreshold
A single neuron might synapse with many others
Summary:
The Brain
Putaman
!
Caudate nucleus
!
Amygdala
!
Thalamus
!
Cerebellum
!
Memory
"
Hippocampus
!
Descartes said important
"
Controls hormonal secretions
"
Pineal gland
!
Small, but be wary of damage – results in fatality
"
i.e. eating, drinking
Motivational systems, bodily regulations
"
Sensory output routed through sent to larger structures
"
Hypothalamus
!
Under cortex join right and left side of the cortex (bundle of
nervous fibres)
"
Corpus Callosum
!
Controls emotions (amygdala processes many emotions)
"
Limbic system
!
Sensory
Parietal Lobe
"
Interpretation of emotionality
Frontal Lobe
"
Some aspects of visual processing
Auditory processing
Temporal Lobe
"
Small; located in back
Main processing unit for vision
Occipital Lobe
"
Cortex
!
Inhibitory systems
o
Limbic System:
Visual, occipital lobe
o
Somatosensory, on parietal lobe
o
Motor, on frontal lobe
o
Auditory, side of temporal lobe
o
On each lobe there are Projection areas
EX) Motor area: Starts at Central Fissure (toes, ankle) and as you move
away; up to the left, moves up the body (face)
!
Corresponds to our body/muscles
o
Topographic Representation
Opposite side control in each hemisphere i.e. Right hemisphere controls left
side of the body
o
Contralateral Control
The more functional important an area is, the more cortical area devoted to it
o
EX) a lot to face, little to toes
!
Different amounts of lobe devoted to different areas of body
o
Functional Assignment of Space
Projection Areas Commonalities
Take x-ray of brain and enhance certain areas with dye
!
Used to determine blood clots when assessing stroke effects
!
Limitations: does not show detailed structures/function; only blood
vessels and possible damage
!
Angiogram
o
Takes x-rays from 360 degree rotation
!
Computer programming produces and enhances image
!
Used to asses structural damage i.e. ventricles (allow flow of spinal
fluid, blood vessels etc.), should be large due to amount of brain tissue
!
Limitations: not fine tuned structure but shows damage
!
CAT scan
o
Exposure to strong magnetic field
!
Picks up shifts in electron orbits and reconstructs what brain looks like
!
Almost as accurate as anatomical dissection
!
FMRI combines with PET scan for most detailed results
!
MRI – most detailed scan
o
Injects radioactive glucose
!
Uses coding (Colour codingmore intense colours (white, red, yellow)
shows more activity and vice versa with cooler colours)
!
Evidence from brain damage
"
Direct stimulation of cortex
"
Not designed for structural/anatomical info, but for functional info
!
PET scan
o
Scanning techniques to scan intact brain – best source of information
How do we get this information?
Lecture 6
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The Brain
Review of Neurons
Drug Effects
Gross Brain Anatomy
Semi permeable membrane
o
Charge due to ions (-70 mv)
o
Action potential results from Na+ and K+ exchange
o
Neurons generate actions potentials inAll and None” fashion
o
Intensity coded as frequency
o
Neurons
Action potentialpushes” vesicles toward gap
o
Neurotransmitters diffuse across gap
o
Depolarization > EPSP
!
Hyper polarization > IPSP
!
Lock and key receptors
o
Synapse
What happens when multiples neurons synapse?
Acetycholine (ACh)
Norepineprine (NE)
Dopamine (DA)
Serotonin (5-HT) (Depression)
Gamma Amino Butyric Acid (GABA)
Neurotrasmitters
Increase r decrease amount of transmitter
o
Processes that terminate transmitter action
o
Stimulates or locks receptor sites
o
Drug Effects
Stimulates release of Dopamine (DA)
o
Prevents re-uptake
o
Dumps Dopamine, then leaves it there for a while = getting high
o
Cocaine mimics Schizophrenia
o
Cocaine:
Blocks receptor sites for Ach
o
Jungle drug
o
Stops you from moving
o
Used to paralyze
o
Used to hunt jungles in the jungle on poison tips
o
Heart will explode
o
Curare
Venom keeps dumping it, ACh deals with moving, even in the heart.
Black Widow bites you and your heart rate increases
Stimulates Release of Ach
o
Black Widow Venom
Covers synaptic knob so Ach can’t escape
Blocks release of Ach
o
Won’t stop basic bodily functions – targets specific sections of digestive
system
o
Botulism Toxin
Stimulates receptor molecules, “duplicatingeffects of ACh
o
ACh is involved in systems that help focus
o
Nicotine
Blocks Adenosine receptor sites
o
Adenosine makes you sleep, if caffeine blocks it you stay awake
o
Caffeine
How do drugs work?
Stimulates receptor molecule
!
Nicotine – agonist
o
Prevent neurotransmitter from having response you want to have
!
Block receptor sites
!
Caffeine – antagonist
o
Nicotine vs. Caffeine
All or None
o
Intensity coded as Frequency
o
All Neurons Fire i.e. generate action potentials
Different transmitters
o
Influence of receptor
o
Excitatory Neurons” VS. Inhibitory Neurons”
Depolarize Postsynaptic membrane (EPSP)
o
Excitatory Neurons”
Hyperpolarize (IPSP)
o
“Inhibitory Neurons
Graded potentials
o
Summative across space, and summative across time
o
Additive
o
EPSP’s and IPSPs are additive across space and time
IPSPs are generated and passed along neurons
o
Constant” Inhibition effectivelyraisesthreshold
A single neuron might synapse with many others
Summary:
The Brain
Putaman
!
Caudate nucleus
!
Amygdala
!
Thalamus
!
Cerebellum
!
Memory
"
Hippocampus
!
Descartes said important
"
Controls hormonal secretions
"
Pineal gland
!
Small, but be wary of damage – results in fatality
"
i.e. eating, drinking
Motivational systems, bodily regulations
"
Sensory output routed through sent to larger structures
"
Hypothalamus
!
Under cortex join right and left side of the cortex (bundle of
nervous fibres)
"
Corpus Callosum
!
Controls emotions (amygdala processes many emotions)
"
Limbic system
!
Sensory
Parietal Lobe
"
Interpretation of emotionality
Frontal Lobe
"
Some aspects of visual processing
Auditory processing
Temporal Lobe
"
Small; located in back
Main processing unit for vision
Occipital Lobe
"
Cortex
!
Inhibitory systems
o
Limbic System:
Visual, occipital lobe
o
Somatosensory, on parietal lobe
o
Motor, on frontal lobe
o
Auditory, side of temporal lobe
o
On each lobe there are Projection areas
EX) Motor area: Starts at Central Fissure (toes, ankle) and as you move
away; up to the left, moves up the body (face)
!
Corresponds to our body/muscles
o
Topographic Representation
Opposite side control in each hemisphere i.e. Right hemisphere controls left
side of the body
o
Contralateral Control
The more functional important an area is, the more cortical area devoted to it
o
EX) a lot to face, little to toes
!
Different amounts of lobe devoted to different areas of body
o
Functional Assignment of Space
Projection Areas Commonalities
Take x-ray of brain and enhance certain areas with dye
!
Used to determine blood clots when assessing stroke effects
!
Limitations: does not show detailed structures/function; only blood
vessels and possible damage
!
Angiogram
o
Takes x-rays from 360 degree rotation
!
Computer programming produces and enhances image
!
Used to asses structural damage i.e. ventricles (allow flow of spinal
fluid, blood vessels etc.), should be large due to amount of brain tissue
!
Limitations: not fine tuned structure but shows damage
!
CAT scan
o
Exposure to strong magnetic field
!
Picks up shifts in electron orbits and reconstructs what brain looks like
!
Almost as accurate as anatomical dissection
!
FMRI combines with PET scan for most detailed results
!
MRI – most detailed scan
o
Injects radioactive glucose
!
Uses coding (Colour codingmore intense colours (white, red, yellow)
shows more activity and vice versa with cooler colours)
!
Evidence from brain damage
"
Direct stimulation of cortex
"
Not designed for structural/anatomical info, but for functional info
!
PET scan
o
Scanning techniques to scan intact brain – best source of information
How do we get this information?
Lecture 6
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version