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Psychology 1000 Lecture Notes - Homeostasis, Blood Sugar, Lateral Hypothalamus

Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Terry Biggs

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Motivation & Emotion
What is Motivation?
A process that influences:
The direction
The persistence
The vigour
of goal-directed behaviour
Perspectives on Motivation
Early view: Instinct Theory
Instincts motivate much behaviour
Modern Evolutionary Psychology
Adaptive significance: We are motivated to engage in behaviour that promotes
survival advantages
State of internal physiological equilibrium
Drive theory (Hull, 1943, 1951)
Physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives to behave in a certain
way (e.g. thirst influences drinking)
“pushes” organism into action
Incentive theory
Environmental stimuli motivate behaviour
“pulls” organism into action
Expectancy x value theory
Goal-directed behaviour is jointly determined by expectation that behaviour will
lead to a goal and the value the individual places on the goal (incentive value)
Motivation = expectancy x incentive value
Extrinsic motivation
Performing an activity to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment
Intrinsic motivation
Performing an activity because you find it enjoyable or stimulating
Humanistic Theory Abraham Maslow
Self -Actualization
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