Psychology 2043A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Developmental Disability, Intellectual Disability, Visual Impairment

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
Western University
Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2043A/B
Psychology 2043B Exceptional Children: Developmental Disorders
Week 2: Introduction to Children Who Are Exceptional
Weekly Objectives
1. Develop an understanding of the terminology associated with exceptionalities
2. Review some of the relevant legislation (international, national, provincial)
3. Discuss the difference between a label and a diagnosis
4. Discuss the use of labels with respect to individuals
5. Provide an overview of the terminology related to counting cases of exceptionalities
6. Learn about the concept of the Least Restrictive Environment
7. Develop an understanding of the differences between accommodations and
modifications in programming for a child with special needs
Children with Exceptionalities
Children with exceptionalities have difficulty reaching their full potential. Their
intellectual, emotional, physical, or social performance falls below or rises above that of
other children
In an educational context, children are considered exceptional only when their
educational program must be altered to meet their unique needs
Terminology:
o Impairments abnormalities of body structure and system function (e.g. a visual
impairment)
o Disability consequences of impairments in regards to functional performance
(e.g. the person has difficulty seeing)
o Handicap disadvantages of impairments; an inability to meet environmental
demands or achieve goals
o Developmental Disability indicates the presence of a condition that
significantly affects the process of development
o Developmental Delay implies that a child is behind peers, but may catch up
Often used inappropriately: historically, the word “delay” was used
instead of “disability”, as it was softer. However, the problem with this is
that it implies often falsely that the condition or the effects of the
condition can be overcome with either time or treatment
What is PL 94-142? What is I.D.E.A.?
Public Law 94-142 is the Education of All Handicapped Children Act. It is now called
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act because it makes a nice acronym (IDEA)
In 1975, U.S. Congress passed Public Law 94-142. In order to receive federal funds,
states must develop and implement policies that assure a free appropriate public
education to all children with disabilities
Four Purposes of PL 94-142:
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o “to assure that all children with disabilities have available to them…a free
appropriate public education which emphasizes special education and related
services designed to meet their unique needs”
o “to assure that the rights of children with disabilities and their parents…are
protected”
o “to assist States and localities to provide for the education of all children with
disabilities”
o “to assess and assure the effectiveness of efforts to educate all children with
disabilities”
What’s the law in Canada? In Ontario?
IDEA is the standard across the United States. Canada’s policies are not as cohesive
Currently, all the provinces and the three territories have some form of legislated
responsibility for the education of children who are exceptional, but the breadth of
services varies. Legislative activity has tended to focus on children with disabling
conditions
In 2008, the province introduced a new law for developmental services called the
Services and Supports to Promote the Social Inclusion of Persons with Developmental
Disabilities Act
o This law replaced the previous act: The Developmental Services Act
The new law helps to encourage people with developmental disabilities to participate in
their communities and supports them in using their skills and abilities at home, at work
and in other places. It also sets out rules for agencies and people that receive
government funding
According to the Government of Ontario, 1% of Ontarians have a developmental
disability (personal comment: this figure is inaccurately low…)
Before a person can apply for adult developmental services, Development Services
Ontario REQUIRES individuals to have a psychological assessment
What does it mean to have a Developmental Disability in Ontario?
Under the Services and Supports to Promote the Social Inclusion of Persons with
Developmental Disabilities Act, 2008:
o A person has a developmental disability if the person has the prescribed
significant limitations in cognitive functioning and adaptive functioning and
those limitations,
Originated before the person reached 18 years of age;
Are likely to be life-long in nature; and
Affect areas of major life activity, such as personal care, language skills,
learning abilities, the capacity to live independently as an adult or any
other prescribed activity
o Adaptive functioning” means a person’s capacity to gain personal
independence, based on the person’s ability to learn and apply conceptual,
social and practical skills in his or her everyday life;
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Document Summary

Week 2: introduction to children who are exceptional. Children with exceptionalities have difficulty reaching their full potential. Their intellectual, emotional, physical, or social performance falls below or rises above that of other children. In an educational context, children are considered exceptional only when their educational program must be altered to meet their unique needs. Often used inappropriately: historically, the word delay was used instead of disability , as it was softer. However, the problem with this is that it implies often falsely that the condition or the effects of the condition can be overcome with either time or treatment. Public law 94-142 is the education of all handicapped children act. Individuals with disabilities education act because it makes a nice acronym (idea) In 1975, u. s. congress passed public law 94-142. In order to receive federal funds, states must develop and implement policies that assure a free appropriate public education to all children with disabilities.

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