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Psychology 2310A/B Lecture Notes - Reinforcement, Classical Conditioning, Cognitive Therapy

Course Code
Rod Martin

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Tutorial Week 2:
Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Approaches
Freudian psychoanalysis very popular back in the day, psychologists would see
patients every day for up to an hour a day for sometimes years
o Heavy focus on dream analysis and relationships with parents
o Conscious, subconscious, id, ego, superego
Radical behaviourism only interested in behaviours or things they could
objectively see or measure; observable behaviours
People learned behaviours through classical and operant conditioning
Now the two are more similar that different
o Ex: cognitive therapy and secure attachment theories meet more in the middle
Behavioral Approach
Two types of conditioning
Respondent (Classical)
Reward comes before behaviour
Automatic responses
o Such as emotions, salivating
Controlled by Autonomic NS (nervous system)
Eliciting stimuli
o Bell comes first eliciting response
Operant (Instrumental)
Behaviour comes first them reward or punishment follows
Voluntary actions, behaviors
Somatic NS
Reinforcing stimuli
o Ex: rat presses a lever and gets food
Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov
Neutral stimulus (bell) ---- no response
Unconditioned stimuli (food) ---- unconditioned response (salivation)
Before conditioning
Conditioned stimulus (bell) and UCS (food) ---- UCR (salivation
During conditioning
CS (bell) ---- CR (salivation)
Classical Conditioning in Daily Life
Emotional responses** possible exam question
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