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Psychology 2310A/B
Rod Martin

Tutorial Week 2: Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Approaches  Freudian psychoanalysis – very popular back in the day, psychologists would see patients every day for up to an hour a day for sometimes years o Heavy focus on dream analysis and relationships with parents o Conscious, subconscious, id, ego, superego  Radical behaviourism – only interested in behaviours or things they could objectively see or measure; observable behaviours  People learned behaviours through classical and operant conditioning  Now the two are more similar that different o Ex: cognitive therapy and secure attachment theories meet more in the middle Behavioral Approach Two types of conditioning Respondent (Classical)  Reward comes before behaviour Automatic responses o Such as emotions, salivating Controlled by Autonomic NS (nervous system) Eliciting stimuli o Bell comes first eliciting response Antecedents Operant (Instrumental)  Behaviour comes first them reward or punishment follows Voluntary actions, behaviors Somatic NS Reinforcing stimuli o Ex: rat presses a lever and gets food Consequences Classical Conditioning – Ivan Pavlov Neutral stimulus (bell) –---- no response Unconditioned stimuli (food) –---- unconditioned response (salivation) Before conditioning Conditioned stimulus (bell) and UCS (food) –---- UCR (salivation During conditioning CS (bell) –---- CR (salivation) Classical Conditioning in Daily Life Emotional responses** possible exam question Phobias – two-factor model  Ex: been attacked by a dog Classical conditioning of fear o Afraid when attacked so now dogs make them feel fear Avoidance of stimulus (negative reinforcement – operant conditioning) o Avoid dogs to avoid their fear response Systematic Desensitization (Wolpe) Based on Extinction o A client is afraid of dogs Develop a hierarchy of fears (SUDS) o Subjective units of distress; rank of fears of how afraid they would be in certain situations when it comes to dogs Train relaxation response Imaginal exposure – associate feared stimuli with relaxation instead of trauma B.F. Skinner – Operant Conditioning Introduced removed Positive stimulus Positive reinforcement Extinction Negative stimulus Punishment Negative reinforcement Operant Conditioning in Everyday Life Interpersonal relationships Example of Bob and Mary  Saturday morning and Mary wants to have a relaxing morning at home but Bob wants to go play golf and he gets grumpy and moody when Mary says what she’s doing for the day and he starts yelling  Mary tells him to go play golf just to get him out of the house 
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