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Lecture 8

CT 203 Lecture 8: CT203 - Lecture Notes - 02.04.16

3 Pages
37 Views
Fall 2015

Department
Contemporary Studies
Course Code
CT203
Professor
James A Le Clair
Lecture
8

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Week #5: Title February 4th, 2016
Last Class
Respiratory Tract
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Urogenital Tract
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
Dr. James LeClair | CT203 Goldie-Anne Weiss | WLU | Winter 2016

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Description
th Week #5: Title February 4 , 2016 …Last Class Respiratory Tract ➢ The respiratory tract is an important point of entry for pathogens o Mucous in the nose and pharynx traps larger particles o In the lower bronchial tree, the ‘muco-ciliary elevator’ moves mucous toward the mouth ▪ It is expelled through coughing or spitting, or is swallowed • Muco-ciliary elevator o Cilia line the lower respiratory tree (only going upwards) and pushes mucous toward the mouth o Substance in the lungs cause clumping of microbes, facilitating their destruction o Antimicrobial substances are produced in the respiratory tract o Together, these defences yield sterile alveoli (ends of the bronchial tree) under normal circumstances …This Class Mouth and Intestines ➢ Food and water contamination are significant sources of illness ➢ The faecal-oral route is an important pathway of infection for a number of pathogens o Pink Eye comes from fecal matter meeting eye ➢ Saliva contains lysozymes, an enzyme that can damage the cell walls of some bacteria and fungi ➢ The high acidity of gastric juices are a first line of defence against infection through the oral consumption of pathogens o H. Pylori, has adapted to the acidic environment of the stomach ▪ It is blamed for up to 80% of ulcers • Other reasons: taking too much ibuprofen and acetemetaphin o Antibodies, antimicrobial substances, and friendly flora are also found in the gut ▪ Stomach acid is really damaging to the cell walls of bacteria ▪ Anything that is consumed by the stomach is actually neutralizing it ▪ One of the most prescribed medications used raises the pH in the stomach • Creates risk of more likely to be prone to pathogens ▪ Eating yogurt means that means that you are reducing the amount of microbes that make it into your system Urogenital Tract ➢ The urinary tract is flushed of bacteria through voiding o This can be impaired in the case of prostatic hypertrophy (swelling of the prostate) ▪ Indicator that there is something wrong ▪ Difficult time passing urine o The female urethra is relatively short, and therefore more vulnerable to infection ▪ Not conveniently located ➢ The kidneys produce an antibacterial substance that can aid in controlling the extent of bacterial infection o Mediating your acid base balance amongst other things ➢ Similar antibacterial substances are produced in the vagina, cervix and uterus ➢ The vagina is mildly acidic, which lends protection from infection ➢ Mucous protects the entrance of the cervix o Women in monogamous relationships tend to have higher instances of the infections o ‘The Gap’: the gap between the fimbriae and the ovaries Dr. James LeClair | CT203 Goldie-Anne Weiss | WLU | Winter 2016 th Week #5: Title February 4 , 2016 ▪ Open to the abdominal pelvic cavity = need more protection Eyes ➢ Tears serve to flush particles – including microbes – from the eyes o Tears contain the antibacterial and antifungal enzyme lysozyme Phagocytes ➢ These cells of non-specific immunity ingest and destroy foreign cells or other harmful substances via phagocytosis o Phagocytosis: the destruction and breaking down of foreign cells Specific Immunity ➢ Specific immunity provides protection against specific bacteria, viruses or toxins o Involves the ability of the body to recognize, respond to, and remember harmful substances or bacteria ▪ Antigens are the things that our immune system responds to, they have a specific shape ▪ Our immune system is able to see that particular shape, respond to the particular shape and
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