Class Notes (977,003)
CA (575,746)
WLU (20,590)
CT (150)
CT203 (17)
Lecture 8

CT 203 Lecture 8: CT203 - Lecture Notes - 02.04.16

3 Pages
Fall 2015

Contemporary Studies
Course Code
James A Le Clair

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full 3 pages of the document.
Week #5: Title February 4th, 2016
Last Class
Respiratory Tract
o 
o 
…This Class
Mouth and Intestines
Urogenital Tract
o 
Dr. James LeClair | CT203 Goldie-Anne Weiss | WLU | Winter 2016

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
th Week #5: Title February 4 , 2016 …Last Class Respiratory Tract ➢ The respiratory tract is an important point of entry for pathogens o Mucous in the nose and pharynx traps larger particles o In the lower bronchial tree, the ‘muco-ciliary elevator’ moves mucous toward the mouth ▪ It is expelled through coughing or spitting, or is swallowed • Muco-ciliary elevator o Cilia line the lower respiratory tree (only going upwards) and pushes mucous toward the mouth o Substance in the lungs cause clumping of microbes, facilitating their destruction o Antimicrobial substances are produced in the respiratory tract o Together, these defences yield sterile alveoli (ends of the bronchial tree) under normal circumstances …This Class Mouth and Intestines ➢ Food and water contamination are significant sources of illness ➢ The faecal-oral route is an important pathway of infection for a number of pathogens o Pink Eye comes from fecal matter meeting eye ➢ Saliva contains lysozymes, an enzyme that can damage the cell walls of some bacteria and fungi ➢ The high acidity of gastric juices are a first line of defence against infection through the oral consumption of pathogens o H. Pylori, has adapted to the acidic environment of the stomach ▪ It is blamed for up to 80% of ulcers • Other reasons: taking too much ibuprofen and acetemetaphin o Antibodies, antimicrobial substances, and friendly flora are also found in the gut ▪ Stomach acid is really damaging to the cell walls of bacteria ▪ Anything that is consumed by the stomach is actually neutralizing it ▪ One of the most prescribed medications used raises the pH in the stomach • Creates risk of more likely to be prone to pathogens ▪ Eating yogurt means that means that you are reducing the amount of microbes that make it into your system Urogenital Tract ➢ The urinary tract is flushed of bacteria through voiding o This can be impaired in the case of prostatic hypertrophy (swelling of the prostate) ▪ Indicator that there is something wrong ▪ Difficult time passing urine o The female urethra is relatively short, and therefore more vulnerable to infection ▪ Not conveniently located ➢ The kidneys produce an antibacterial substance that can aid in controlling the extent of bacterial infection o Mediating your acid base balance amongst other things ➢ Similar antibacterial substances are produced in the vagina, cervix and uterus ➢ The vagina is mildly acidic, which lends protection from infection ➢ Mucous protects the entrance of the cervix o Women in monogamous relationships tend to have higher instances of the infections o ‘The Gap’: the gap between the fimbriae and the ovaries Dr. James LeClair | CT203 Goldie-Anne Weiss | WLU | Winter 2016 th Week #5: Title February 4 , 2016 ▪ Open to the abdominal pelvic cavity = need more protection Eyes ➢ Tears serve to flush particles – including microbes – from the eyes o Tears contain the antibacterial and antifungal enzyme lysozyme Phagocytes ➢ These cells of non-specific immunity ingest and destroy foreign cells or other harmful substances via phagocytosis o Phagocytosis: the destruction and breaking down of foreign cells Specific Immunity ➢ Specific immunity provides protection against specific bacteria, viruses or toxins o Involves the ability of the body to recognize, respond to, and remember harmful substances or bacteria ▪ Antigens are the things that our immune system responds to, they have a specific shape ▪ Our immune system is able to see that particular shape, respond to the particular shape and
More Less
Unlock Document

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

You've reached the limit of 4 previews this month

Create an account for unlimited previews.

Already have an account?

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.