PS100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 29: Naturalistic Observation, Psychosexual Development, Erogenous Zone

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13 Dec 2016
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Personality- Chapter 12
Tuesday, November 8, 2016
11:31 AM
Who are you?
Introvert/Extrovert
We are different
Throughout time people have been intuitively aware of individual differences
We like soe
That they like some people and not others
Historical knowledge of individual differences
Theophrastus wrote about different "character" to try to describe individual differences
Attempting to characterize people- their personalities
Personality Definition (consistency, and distinctive)
Personality-Distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that
characterize a person's response to situations
o A collection of stable traits and her characteristics
o Varies from one individual to another
Come from word persona- actors mask
How do we measure personality?
Ask them?- Ask others? (objective)- Results of a test?- Observe them? (naturalistic observation)
If you ask someone to take a test, you wont answer as honestly because of social bias
No single method, assessment test and naturalistic observation
Personality Assessment
Interviews
o Structured set of standardized questions
o Note other behaviours- appearance, speech, patterns, etc
Drawbacks
o Characteristics of interviewer can affect answers
o Dependence on co-operation, honestly of interviewee
Behavioural assessment (never use just one observer, and observation codes are tallied because
of bias)
o Need explicit coding system
o Aim is not solely to 'describe' behaviour (specific behaviour, frequency, specific situation,
under what conditions
o Interjudge reliability (high level of agreement among observers)
Personality scales
o Objective measures (use standard questions and agreed upon scoring key
Advantage
o Collect large amount of data
Disadvantage
o Validity of answers truthfully answered)
o Validity scales
Personality scales items
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Trait theories
Based on theoretical conception of trait
Concern: have to identify what are the underlying traits that describe people
State vs. Traits
Traits- are consistent and are habitual patterns of behaviours
Traits- The Big Issues
Identifying the number of traits
Are they stable over time, and situation?
Are they the product of genetics, environment?
Answers by Trait Theorists
Number of traits measured varies by test
Are they stable-somewhat, sometimes
Some genetic component, some environmental
Differences across people come from within the person
Trait Theories
Cattell was first- 16 traits with opposing labels
o "Happy-go-lucky" versus "somber"
Cattell gave way to more modern tests which have fewer traits
Trait- Based Personality Assessment
Modern tests
NEO-PI-R (Costa and McCrae)
o Big 5 personality traits OR the five-factor model (Extraversion, neruoticism, openess to
experience, agreeableness, conscientiousness
Meyers- Briggs Personality Test
The Big Modern- Personality Assessment
Empirical devised tests
o Hierarchically arranged
o Items were answered differently by different groups (Based on responses by 'normal' and
psychiatric patients)
o Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI2)
The traits Perspectives
Eysenck's model of personality structure
o Genes source for personality
o 3 higher-order traits- Determine lower personality traits which determine our habitual
responses and specific behaviours
o Extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism
High-Order Traits/ Superfactors
Neuroticism- degree to which one experiences negative emotions
o Low: calm, even-tempered
o High: worrying, temperamental
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Extraversion- degree to which one is outgoing
o Introvert: thoughtful, reliable, passive
o Extravert: impulsive, sociable, assertive
Psychoticism- degree to which one is vulnerable to psychoses, or loss of touch with reality
The Five-Factor Model (figure 12-3)
Behavioural genetics-inherited
Identical twins share more similarities than fraternal twins
November 10, 2016
Thursday, November 10, 2016
11:37 AM
Summing Trait Ideas
Stable (maybe)
Observable
May be genetic/ environmental influences
Comes from within
Situationist: Behavioural Background
Environment impacts on you- you respond
Stimulus response
Consistency in people= stable responses to environment
Interactionist: Behavioural-Cognitive Approach
Differences= Product of what comes from without (environment)
Behaviourism plus
Add cognitive variables- competencies, encoding strategies, beliefs and expectancies
Psychodynamic
What people do and say are the tip of the iceberg
Motives and desires lie buried beneath the surface
Dynamic because the forces are pitted against each other
o Freud
o Humanity= "seething cauldron" of pleasure seeking
o Strive for gratification
o Tame by civilization
Childhood-time of taming
Starts external- parents (set boundaries that are morally correct)
Becomes internal
Reassertion taming throughout life
Freud and the Psychoanalytic Approach
How much of your activities and thoughts do you control? How much is automatic?
Freud's theory very controversial--proposed following processes
o Much due to unconscious processes
o Sexuality is a primary drive
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