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ADMS 3510 (18)
Lecture

# Chapter15.docx

5 Pages
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Department
Administrative Studies
Course Code
ADMS 3510
Professor
Jamison Aldcorn

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CHAPTER 15. COST ALLOCATION: JOINT PRODUCTS AND BY PRODUCTS
Goal: choose the cost allocation method that bet reflects how thte costs actually flow throughout a real
economic process.
JOINT-COST BASICS
- Joint costs: costs of a production process that yields multiple main products simultaneously
- Product: any output that can be sold at full product cost plus profit or enables the company to
avoid purchasing direct materials.
- Joint products: products that have high sales values(main reason for production)
- By products: Products of relatively low sales value
- Scrap: minimal to zero sales value
- Splitoff point : juncture in a production process where two or more main products become
separately identifiable.
- Separable costs: full product costs of processing incurred by each identifiable product beyond
the splitoff point
Different reasons to allocate joint costs:
- Calculation of inventoriable costs and COGS for external financial statements and reports for
income tax authorities
- For internal financial reporting
- Cost reimbursement under contracts
- Customer profitability analysis
- Insurance settlement calculations
- Rate regulation when jointly produced subject to price regulations
- Contract litigation
APPROACHES TO ALLOCATING JOINT COSTS
- Physical measure method allocates joint costs on the basis of their relative proportions at the
split off point, using a common physical measure eg. Weights/ volume.
- Sales value at splitoff method allocates joint costs on the basis of the relative sales value at the
split off point of the total production in the accounting period for each product.
When it is further processed:
- Estimated NRV method allocates joint costs on the basis of the relative estimated net realizable
value ( expected final sales value in the ordinary course of business less expected separable costs
of production and marketing of the total production of the period)
- Constant gross margin percentage NRV method â€“ reverse. Deduct gross margin and separable
cost from final sale value to come to a residual amount : the allocation of joint costs.
Product in the competitive market: company should follow a cost leadership strategy
Differentiated product: price is inelastic for consumers and value leadership is an appropriate strategy to
expand market share and profitability through growth. Consumers are willing to absorb additional cost.
When using weights as measurement for allocation of joint cost: advantage:
- Observable, readily verifiable and economically plausible
- Average cost allocation rate is used.
Lower quantity with high sales price is possible in case of value leadership-> helps increase market share.
High quantity product â€“ commodity for which customers set the price -> cost leadership strategy and
using average cost allocation rate will impair the corporationâ€™s opportunity to recover full product costs
Sales value at splitoff method
Simple division of the joint cost pool by total revenue gives average cost allocation rate.-> allocation of
cost pool.
Often the gross margin percentage among the products will be the same.
However, revenue recognized during a specific accounting period, however must be reported product by
product. This method is verifiable and economically plausible but assumes all products are sold at
splitoff.
- Cost are allocated tp products in proportion to their revenue generating power ( expected
revenue).
- Straightforward and intuitive
- Regulated markets provide shadow prices for these intermediate output, but competitive
markets do not.
Cons about physical measure
- Physical measure allocation method is less preferred than sales/ revenue based since there is no
relationship between the revenue and the weights, inconsistent with revenue objective and
distorts profit per unit.
- Physical measure is not straightforward
- In physical measure-By products and outputs with zero sales value will be excluded from the
physical measure used in the denominator.
DECIDING WHETHER TO SELL AT SPLITOFF OR PROCESS FURTHER
Compare the gross margins forecast by each method. The decision will have long term effects on the
companyâ€™s profitability. Goal is to implement the method that best reflects cost flows of the actual
physical process.
Estimated net realizable value (NRV) method:
Allocates joint costs on the basis of the relative estimated net realizable value ( expected final sales value
in the ordinary course of business minus the total expected separable costs of production and marketing
of the total production of the period)
- Best used when the selling price for one or more products at split off do not exist.

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Description
CHAPTER 15. COST ALLOCATION: JOINT PRODUCTS AND BY PRODUCTS Goal: choose the cost allocation method that bet reflects how thte costs actually flow throughout a real economic process. JOINT-COST BASICS - Joint costs: costs of a production process that yields multiple main products simultaneously - Product: any output that can be sold at full product cost plus profit or enables the company to avoid purchasing direct materials. - Joint products: products that have high sales values(main reason for production) - By products: Products of relatively low sales value - Scrap: minimal to zero sales value - Splitoff point : juncture in a production process where two or more main products become separately identifiable. - Separable costs: full product costs of processing incurred by each identifiable product beyond the splitoff point Different reasons to allocate joint costs: - Calculation of inventoriable costs and COGS for external financial statements and reports for income tax authorities - For internal financial reporting - Cost reimbursement under contracts - Customer profitability analysis - Insurance settlement calculations - Rate regulation when jointly produced subject to price regulations - Contract litigation APPROACHES TO ALLOCATING JOINT COSTS - Physical measure method allocates joint costs on the basis of their relative proportions at the split off point, using a common physical measure eg. Weights/ volume. - Sales value at splitoff method allocates joint costs on the basis of the relative sales value at the split off point of the total production in the accounting period for each product. When it is further processed: - Estimated NRV method allocates joint costs on the basis of the relative estimated net realizable value ( expected final sales value in the ordinary course of business less expected separable costs of production and marketing of the total production of the period) - Constant gross margin percentage NRV method â€“ reverse. Deduct gross margin and separable cost from final sale value to come to a residual amount : the allocation of joint costs. Product in the competitive market: company should follow a cost leadership strategy Differentiated product: price is inelastic for consumers and value leadership is an appropriate strategy to expand market share and profitability through growth. Consumers are willing to absorb additional cost. When using weights as measurement for allocation of joint cost: advantage: - Observable, readily verifiable and economically plausible - Average cost allocation rate is used. Lower quantity with high sales price is possible in case of value leadership-> helps increase market share. High quantity product â€“ commodity for which customers set the price -> cost leadership strategy and using average cost allocation rate will impair the corporationâ€™s opportunity to recover full product costs Sales value at splitoff method Simple division of the joint cost pool by total revenue gives average cost allocation rate.-> allocation of cost pool. Often the gross margin percentage among the products will be the same. However, revenue recognized during a specific accounting period, however must be reported product by product. This method is verifiable and economically plausible but assumes all products are sold at splitoff. - Cost are allocated tp products in proportion to their revenue generating power ( expected revenue). - Straightforward and intuitive - Regulated markets provide shadow prices for these intermediate output, but competitive markets do not. Cons about physical measure - Physical measure allocation method is less preferred than sales/ revenue based since there is no relationship between the revenue and the weights, inconsistent with revenue objective and distorts profit per unit. - Physical measure is not straightforward - In physical measure-By products and outputs with zero sales value will be excluded from the physical measure used in the denominator. DECIDING WHETHER TO SELL AT SPLITOFF OR PROCESS FURTHER Compare the gross margins forecast by each method. The decision will have long term effects on the companyâ€™s profitability. Goal is to implement the me
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