CRIM 2652 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Learned Helplessness, Intersectionality, Iceberg

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Criminal Justice November 23, 2017
Chart:
- Indigenous women are more prone to intimate partner violence
- Indigenous women experience the most homicides compared to other racial minorities
Intersectionality:
- The iteatios etee diffeet aspets of a pesos idetity ad soial loatio
o Determined by socio-economic status, age, race, ethnicity, ability, sexual
orientation and employment status
- Helps understand under reporting
o Black women systematic racism, religious beliefs, sexism, poverty
Concerns About Pro-Arrest/No Drop Criminalization Reforms:
- Questionable/differential effects of arrest
- Need for an integrated response
- Dual charging
o Charge both partners - one of the partners actions were in self defense
- Discretion reasonable and probable grounds
o Stitch rule victim suffered injury that is obvious and requires medical attention
- Victimization by the CJS
- Fears about personal safety/economic pressures
- Contempt charges
- Continues high rates of non-reporting
Non-reporting: Learned Helplessness or ‘easonale Choie?
- Rational Fears
o Stigmatization/ostracism
o Loss of economic support
o Loss of children
o Loss of immigration status
o Reprisal violence
o Language and cultural barriers; distrust of law enforcement authorities
The Search for Alternatives:
- Specialized domestic violence courts
o Main assumption was that the problem was the lack of victim cooperation and
reporting
o Main objective was to increase convictions
- Integrated responses
Restorative Approaches Community conferencing (problematic)
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