langue - the rules and conventions of a given language
parole - the utterances of that language
sign - the basic element of communication, either linguistic (a letter or a word) or non-linguistic (a picture, a t-
shir t etc), it is comprised of two inseperable aspects: the signifier and the signified
signifier - the sound or written mark e.g. cat
signified - the conceptual meaning e.g. what i mean when i say or write 'cat'