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Lecture

Nov 21 – Hollywood’s Decline (1945 – 1970) .docx
Nov 21 – Hollywood’s Decline (1945 – 1970) .docx
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School
York University
Department
Film
Course
FILM 2401
Professor
Joseph Kispal- Kovacs
Semester
Fall

Description
November 21 – Hollywood’s Decline (1945 – 1970) Case Study: Liberal Anti-Imperialism and the Cold War • americas imperial policies became subject of small number of films in 60s and 70s • man who would be king the sand pebbles • • imperialism • action and adventure • US don't like japan or vietnam or koreans Reading: Textbook Chapter 10 • movies were single most important form of entertainment in the US for first half to the 20th century during ww2 movie attendance continued to rise until it reached its peak shortly after the • war • weekly movie attendance in the US peaked at 90 million in 1946 • 1956 the attendance was half of what it was 10 years earlier • bottomed out in late 1960s • Consumerism after the war • factories that had previously produced consumer goods such as automobiles and appliances for the home were quickly converted to the production of war materials • for the duration of the war consumer goods became scarce • factories weren't producing these goods but the rationing of all kinds of commodities became common • labour shortages caused by the enlistment of so many men and quite a few women in the armed searches led to significant wage increases for those who remained to build equipment necessary for victory • those who stayed back could only invest in basic necessitates & war bonds so financial requirements for victory could be deferred over a long period of time or going to the movies • american movie industry was one of the few industries that wasn't adversely affected by this transformation of the economy • US government wanted the industry to continue to make movies to help convince americans of the necessity of fighting this war • wanted americans to have a place to go and forget their troubles and worries a place to be entertained for a few hours • resulting in packed movie houses operating around the clock so shift workers could go to the movies after work even if it was in the middle of the night • when war ended conditions feeding this demand for movies began to disappear factories were converted back to production of consumer gods • • absence of goods during the war produced tremendous pent up demand • american began feeding into consumer culture again—pent up demand • movies was first factory leading to decline in movie attendance • rise of suburbia • housing patterns changed significantly after the war • housing shortages in many of the major cities across the country led many developers to build tracts of new houses on the outskirts of the major cities • 20 year period after the war saw significant migration of people from older cities to newer communities american movie industry because they had invested a significant amount of capital • building large and elaborate movie theatres in the cities • theatres were farther from homes in suburbanites built new theatres in suburbs, new malls and began popping up everywhere • • drive-ins theatres to cater to car culture that suburban living forested • the baby boom • depression and war over • 1946-1964 fastest rate of natural growth to their population • parents with young children had a hard time getting out • needed baby sitter, car to drive out to the theatre, parking prices all lead to decline legal problems — the paramount decision (1948) • • oligopolisitc nature of the vertically integrated american movie industry during the period of the hollywood studio system caused regular concerns for the US justice department practices such as block booking and holding back releases until they finished their runs in • theatres owned by the big 5 were a constant source of irritation to them • big 5 and little 3 signed consent decree in 1940 • agreed to eliminate blind booking, limit block booking and curtail further acquisitions of theatres • 1944 us justice department renewed suits against majors • made to supreme court of US • 1948 court found major companies in violation of anti trust law • 1949 majors must divest themselves of ownership or control of first run movie theatres • 1954 all complied • ended vertical integration of movie industry and contributed to decline in integration of movie industry and contributed o decline in profitability of major movie companies • more competitive environment food movie theatre owners but paradoxically led to an increase in price of tickets at box office as they had to compete with each other to get the best first run movies • competition led to out bid more movie rentals and passed on increased costs to movie go- ers decline in attendance by audience members with lower incomes • • mccarthyism and black list • red scare major cause of decline of movie industry • every politician in both major parties tried to outdo his rivals in demonstrating anti communist credentials • most vociferous was congressmen senator joseph mccarthy • communis
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