NATS 1675 Lecture Notes - Lecture 22: Macrophage, Adenoid, Red Pulp

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7 Apr 2016
Department
Course
NATS 1675 LECTURE #22 The Respiratory System continued / The Lymphatic System
and Immunity
Professor: Robert Crippen
Refer to Figure 10.13 The effect of smoking on a human lung
Refer to Figure 10.2 the Upper Respiratory Tract
Gas Exchange
It must pass through three barriers
1) The alveolar lining It occurs by simple diffusion have concentration gradient:
something passes from high concentration to low concentration; it must pass through the
cells up the alveolus
2) A basement membrane the layer of non-living material & it serves to anchor cells
3) The capillary wall - they are thin and are composed of endothelium (a type of simple
squamous epithelial tissue). Oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients and wastes are
exchanged through the thin walls of the capillaries
What is Air?
It is a mixture of gasesprimarily nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2)
There are a number of other minor gases of which we are not concerned
Gas exerts pressure, and the total pressure of a gas is equal to the sum of the pressures
of the individual component gasses
Atmospheric pressure equals to 760 mm Hg at sea level
Inspired Air Alveoli Capillaries Systemic Arteries Cells
160 mm Hg 100 (mixed) 95 25-40
Systemic Veins Expired Air
40 125 (mixed)
CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H+ + HCO3-
Carbon dioxide + water Carbonic acid Hydrogen ion + Bicarbonate
The Law of Chemistry
It is when the gas exerts pressure & the total pressure of a gas is to the sum of the
pressures of the individual component gases
Carbon dioxide is carried by the blood in 3 forms…
1) 7% as dissolved gas in the plasma
2) 23% attached to the hemoglobin
3) 70% as bicarbonate HCO3-
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OXYGEN
The arrows represents the
direction of circulation
Within the alveolus, partial
pressure of O2 is about 100
because it is being mixed
with the residual air trapped
in the lungs / other gases
coming in
Gases will travel by simple
diffusion
Because of hemoglobin,
blood can carry more O2
CARBON
DIOXIDE
Because RBC contain
hemoglobin, it increase to
O2 carrying capacity about
30 times
Blood becomes saturated so
easily
Partial pressure for CO2
coming into the lungs is 45
Partial pressure for CO2 in
the lungs is about 40
In the alveolus, the partial
pressure is about 40
When CO2 leaves the lungs,
it is going to remain 35 as it
travel to the left side of the
heart
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