NATS 1775 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Second Industrial Revolution, Industrial Revolution, Natural Philosophy

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27 Nov 2011
Department
Course
Professor
Lecture Fifteen: Science, Technology and the Birth of Modern Industry
November 10, 2011
Recap: Relationship Between Science and Technology
Greeks
Philosophers such as Aristotle and Plato
-made a separation between natural science and technical knowledge
Natural philosophy versus Technical Knowledge
-Considered to be superior to technical arts
-Knowledge for knowledge’s sake
-Those who practiced natural philosophy were often of a higher status in
society
-Natural science knowledge was considered to be superior because it was
about global things as opposed to just subject specific knowledge
-Those who practiced technical knowledge did not always know how they
came about some of their discoveries (trial and error)
-Technical knowledge considered to be mundane and average
Not supported by the church
-Natural philosophy was originally considered to be heretical
-Technical knowledge was about the material world, which the church didn't
care about that much
-Soon there was a merging of natural philosophy and church (Aristotle’s
ideas were changed slightly)
-Hugh of St Victor tried to link technical knowledge to religion to raise the
status of technical knowledge
Changing Attitudes
Renaissance
-Moving away from the idea of “knowledge for knowledge’s sake”
-The status of technology is changing in society
-Engineers were raising their status in society (they were aligned to the royal
courts and the elite of Europe)
-Natural and technical knowledge were seen as ways to make money, raise
status in society and gain fame
-Growing critiques of Aristotle's ideas
-The use of technical instruments in scientific experiments to manipulate
nature
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-The development of social spaces for people to share their knowledge,
creating a space for interaction between people studying natural science and
technology
-Hybrid humans: those who had an interest in both fields (this did not happen
before)
Francis Bacon
-Critical of Aristotle “knowledge for knowledge’s sake”
-Believed in truth and youthfulness (thought they were the same)
-Linked natural philosophy and technology to the church
-Thought they were both useful tools in helping humans gain control over the
rest of Gods creatures
First Industrial Revolution
Steam Engine
-Created with little or no scientific knowledge
-Lead to more scientific knowledge, not the other way around as previously
thought
The Second Industrial Age - Overview
Geography
The second industrial age was not concentrated in one part of the world, like the
first industrial revolution
-Germany
-United States
These two countries were newly unified and desperate to catch up to England in
terms of industrialization
-They were more open to new techniques and practices than Britain
-Britain had created a huge infrastructure based on traditional methods of
factories and factory structures
-They were less flexible and open to change than Germany and the United
States
Germany
Educational Reforms
Technical Schools
-Formal place where people would receive a technical education
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