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POLS 1000 Lecture Notes - Middle Ages, For Marx, Totalitarianism

Political Science
Course Code
POLS 1000
Martin Breaugh

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For marx and Angoles defining ideology
An interpretation of the movement of reality given by a particular social class
This interpretation justifies the interest of a particular social class
Ideologies will offer meaning and identity in a world where modern and social
Christianity structured social life during the middle ages
Once we got rid of religion in its objective structural function, beliefs become
a choice and so ideologies will come in here and offere the same sort of
comfort that religions will offer and ideologies will be seen as second religions
This Week
Risks of ideologies and ideology thinking
2 major risks
1. Ideologies will deform reality
We will have to perform critical analysis
critical analysis will attempt to look at the particular nature of an ideology
if we do not critically analyze ideologies we accept stupidly certain premises
of these ideologies
offer ready- made answers to the most basic questions
ideologies offer us moral comfort and a sense of security in a complex world
because it offers us a sense of security and some understanding because of
this ideologies can actually lull [to lull means to calm by deception] the human
consequently if your mind is lulled by ideologies that means your mind is not
open, it doesn’t question your everyday assumptions and therefore ideological
thinking can actually ruin critical thinking
2. ideologies are often times presented as the Truth
because of this they offer universal and necessary Truths
if you are a sincere and true believer of an ideology you might actually feel
that this Truth should be imposed on others
[makes sense if you believe its the truth and they are universal and therefore
they apply to all and if you believe it youll believe what's good for you is good
for everyone else; ex. Neighbours]
Ideologies have totalitarian tendencies [meaning ideologies have a tendency
to totalize our understanding of things]
Because they totalize and because they are the truth sometimes ideologies
will have to be imposed and sometimes this position has to be done by violent
needs [ sometimes we have to impose with violence if necessary this truth on
Ideologies can justify the most despicable of undertakes
Is the 1st of the major ideologies
Because of this liberalism will actually set up or offer the basic elements that
will inform the other ideologists
Ex. We can say that socialism is actually the legitimate offspring of liberal

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Liberalism was developed as an ideology as a substitute as a religious
outlook of the christen middle ages
Liberals will also attack in the Renaissance
They will refuse the Christian middle ages and the return of ancient Greece
and ancient rome
Middle ages is a time for religious mystification
And at teh same time we cant return to the Greeks
For liberals both the Ancient Greeks and the Ancient Romans have Mores [a
habit of the heart; values]
Citizens were actually citizen warriors
For liberal thinkers it is commerce that must replace Mores
Other words for liberals we won’t fight our neighbours we will train with them
Mores is a habit of the heart and this is considered natural whereas war isn’t
* disscuss this idea of war like Mores with congress mores
Liberalism will be the theoretical expression of a particular social class
The social class that will define liberalism is the merchant class or the
The bourgeois will emerge historically in the late middle ages
Bourgeois will become the dominant social class of the middle ages
Liberalism is a complex ideology that cannot be reduced to one single
dimension and for many reasons today people had a tendency to reduce them
Fundamental principles of ideology
1. Nature [physical and human nature]
Nature is governed by laws of nature
Humans must obey these laws of nature; If they wish to develop, flourish, to
be happy
In liberal thought nature is abundant/generous
Human happiness can be found in nature
More specifically happiness is found in the full use and consumption of
physical nature
Happiness is also found by following the laws of nature
> sum it up by
Nature Physical [outside] both follow the laws; laws= Natural
Human [inside]
2. Reason is the fundamental manifestation of nature in human beings
[this abstract nature has a concrete existence through reason]
Means that humans naturally impose of sufficient reason and enlightment to
understand physical nature and the laws of nature
And so it is through reason that we can understand all this and allows us to
understand this through physical nature and allows us to use nature/transform
nature to maximize our well being
Reason can only manifest itself through an individual
Happiness is found in the full use and consumption of nature
This idea that justifies our full use and consumtion of nature, this ideas also
called the mastry of nature and the mastry of nature is a fundamental
component of the enlightment project which means that we are allowed to
subjecate nature inorder to maximize our wellbeing
We can cut down as many trees as we wish
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