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Chapter 12 very detailed chapter 12 notes from the textbook and lecture!

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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Ch 12- Personality: Theory, Research, and Assessment The famous five : Nellie McClung, Irene Parlby, Emily Murphy, Henrietta Muir Edwards, and Louise Crummy McKinney The Nature of Personality Defining Personality : Consistency and Distinctiveness The concept of personality is used to explain (1) the stability in a person`s behaviour over time across situations (consistency) and (2) the behavioural differences among people reacting to the same situation (distinctiveness). Personality - refers to an individual`s unique constellation of consistent behavioural traits. Personality Traits: Dispositions and Dimensions is a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of Personality trait - situations (For example, some dispositions that represent personality traits are : honest, dependable, moody, impulsive, suspicious, anxious, excitable, domineering, and friendly). Raymond Cattell used statistical procedure of factor analysis to reduce a huge list of personality traits complied by Gordon Allport to just 16 basic dimensions of personality. Factor analysis - correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables. If the measurements of number of variables correlate highly with one another, the assumption is that a single factor is influencing all of them. Factor analysis is used to find these hidden factors; which are viewed as very basic, higher-order traits that determine less basic, more specific traits. The Five- Factor Model of Personality Traits Robert McCrae and Paul Costa have used factor analysis to arrive at an even simpler, five- factor model of personality; they maintain that most personality traits are derived from just five higher- order traits that have come to be known as the ``Big Five``: Extraversion : (sometimes referred to positive emotionality) outgoing, sociable, upbeat, friendly, assertive, and gregarious. Neuroticism: (sometimes referred to negative emotionality) anxious, hostile, self- conscious, insecure, and vulnerable; they also overreact more in response to stress then others. Openness to Experience : curiosity, flexibility, vivid fantasy, imaginativeness, artistic sensitivity, and unconventional attitudes; it fosters liberalism and McCrae argues that this trait is the key determinant of people`s attitudes and ideology. Agreeableness : sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, modest, and straightforward. People at the oppostie end of this personality dimension are suspicious, antagonistic, and aggressive; agreeableness is associated with constructive approaches to conflict resolution (less quarrelsome then others). Conscientiousness : (sometimes referred to as constraint) diligent, disciplined, well-organized, punctual, and dependable; highly diligent in the workplace. All of the above personality traits are related to several aspects of life: academic performance, marriage/ divorce, occupational attainment, health, ect. Critics argue that: 1) the higher- order traits that emerge in factor analysis depend to some extent on the exact mix of the much larger set of low- order that are measured in the first place and 2) more than five traits are necessary to account for most of the variation seen in human personality. Psychodynamic Perspective Psychodynamic theories - include all of the diverse theories descended from the work of Sigmund Freud, which focus on unconscious mental forces. Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory Freud started off as a neurologist, not a psychologist On the basis of things he saw, he began to develop his theory of personality ( the sexual repression of the Victorian era and the effects of World War I influenced Freud's theories very greatly). Psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and psychological disorders by focusing on the influence of early childhood experiences, on unconscious motives and conflicts, and on the methods people use to cope with their sexual and aggressive urges. First - he argued that people's behaviour is governed by conscious factors of which they are unaware, Freud said that individuals are not masters of their own mind. Second- in claiming that adult personalities are shaped by childhood experiences and other factors beyond one's control, he suggested that people are not masters of their own destines. Third - by emphasizing the great importance of how people cope with their sexual urges. At first, a lot of his ideas were not very well received, but some were eventually accepted ( psychodynamic implies an offshoot of Freud's original theory) A lot of his claims are really hard to substantiate, however, most psychologists agree with aspects of his theories. His approach: we are governed by unconscious conflicts All individuals have two types of instincts: life instincts (libido = sexual energy) and death instincts (aggression/ self- destruction). Freud believed that an individual is born with these two instincts are must keep them under control throughout his/her life. Structures of Personality Id : is the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle. Pleasure principle: demands immediate gratification of its urges. (the id engages in primary-process thinking, which is primitive, illogical, irrational and fantasy- oriented). The reservoir of psychic energy; houses the raw biological urges (to eat sleep, defecate, copulate, and so on) that energizes human behaviour. Structure that contains the instincts, the "only" present at birth. Unconscious and has no contact with reality It seeks indulgence Based on the pleasure principal. Id can reduce tension in two ways: 1) reflex activity - tension can be reduced, comes naturally and 2) primary process thinking. Ego: is the decision making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle. Reality principle: which seeks to delay gratification of the id's urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found. (to stay out of trouble, the ego often works to tame the unbridled desires of the id). The ego mediates between the id, with its forceful desires for immediate satisfaction, and the external social world, with its expectations and norms regarding suitable behaviour. It also considers social realities in deciding how to behave. (13-15 months) Helps the id obtain real satisfaction Is in contact with reality Helps the id get satisfaction in socially acceptable ways Strives for delay of gratification Uses secondary process thinking (which is relatively rational, realistic, and oriented toward pro
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