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Lecture

May 16th Lecture.docx

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2130
Professor
Krista Phillips

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Lecture 4 Outline Midterm  85 Multiple choice  6 chapters – 12 items from each chapter and 13 lecture items  empirical studies are fair game  Know the MMPI  Know the rocha and the phases  Know the projection tests  How personality tests are administered  Nothing on the exam about case studies  Movie: Freud Under Analysis  Not going to be asking about names of psychologists and their remote studies  Don‟t need to know dates  Should know the defense mechanisms  Know the correlation coefficient 1. Neo-Freudian Theories  Divergences in theory and method o There have been a number of divergences is mythological and emphasizes in making the treatment shorts o Theological divergences emphasizes on 2. Adler  Teleological position  Fictional Finalism  Social Interest  Inferiority Complex and its role in development o Overcompensation  Style of Life  Birth Order 3. Erik Erikson  he was a neo-Freudian. He was trained by Freud‟s daughter. He doesn‟t centre on sexual drives by rather social drives. He refers social drives as to peoples need to develop various kind of relationship with others and establish themselves as a useful person in the group.  Psychosocial Stage Theory social drives mean peoples need to have meaningful relationships with people and the need to belong. He highlighted that our species is very social. The last four stages have no Freudian counterpart o Basis trust vs. mistrust (birth – 1): Oral – pleasure from taking things in the mouth o Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (1-3): Anal – anal region-kid wants to gain immediate pleasure from passing feces, but wants to please parents o Initiative vs. guilt (3-5): Phallic – incestuous desire for opposite parent. Guilt. o Industry vs. inferiority (5-12): Latency – time of repressed sexuality-libido displaced into middle childhood activities like learning, making friends etc o Identify vs. identity confusion (adolescences) it is period were there a very rapid physical and emotional change. We also see an increasing social expectation for adult behaviour. Erikson said this is the time the ego must reevaluate reality. They become concerned about what other think of them and fitting in.  Central argument here is moving away from the parents and seeking freedom.  This stage is worst now than it was before there is a lot of role confusion  D. Bakan “Adolescence fact or fiction” o Intimacy vs. isolation (young adulthood)  During this phase mature psychological development is measured in successfully completion of  Critical normative events  He argues the formation of personal identity continues to pay an important part but young adults can‟t differentiate from mom and dad but from their peers.  To very large the maturity is  The need for independence and need for intimacy and these two things butt up with each other. As young adult we are motivate to fused our identity with another person  Isolation happens when a person is too rigid.  Erikson noticed that this point we are highly motivated  We can‟t be in a deep caring relationship until you have established your own identity o Generativity vs. stagnation (middle adulthood)  This stage is a very board concept, which included parenthood, productivity, and creativity.  This is when people are the happiest for reasons that make a whole a lot of sense because they are stable in their jobs, they have developed their skills.  Erikson noted that generativity may also include the need to preserve the environment, to be more aware of global issues.  The conflict here is between generativity and stagnation (the peoples who have just given up)  Stagnation the person fails to generate; these have just given up.  The emotion that is most associated with generativity is caring, welfare for others in your group o Integrity vs. despair (late adulthood)  Creativity the ability to look at life in a more detach way.  Failure to resolve other conflict this is called despair. Alfred Adler Teleological Position  Current behaviour is directed by future goals.  Motivation is the striving towards the fulfillment. Fictional Finalism  Ideas that guide behaviour.  Humans strive for perceived/imagined goals.  The ultimate goal is superiority Social Interest  Innate capacity for good will and sense of community Midterm Tutorial 1 Chapter 2: clues to personality  Four kinds of “clues”: S, I, L. B data o 1. S Data = self-judgments: Ask the person directly – you ask the person if you can ask the questions about themselves.  E.g. Likert-type scales, true-false, open minded questions  Objective – are any test truly objective and they can be as directive as possible.  Must have face validity – the reason what you are measuring is what you are measuring  S data tests are the most frequently used tests for personality assessment and in fact over used. Advantages S data  Self as best expert about self  Casual force (self-fulfilling prophecy) this concept of you create your own reality  Efficacy expectations (Beliefs that you can become the perception you or others have of yourself) if someone else sees you in a certain way you are most likely to be like that way  Self verification (get others to treat you in a manner that conforms your self-perception)  Simple and easy Disadvantages S data:  Withholding information  Not about to disclose  Too simple, cheap and easy 2. I data = judgment by others  Ask the person‟s friend, family, acquaintances  Subjective and judgmental Advantages I data  Large volume of information  Real-world basis (natural context) they take into considered context.  Common sense (behaviour observed in context of the situation )  Causal force: I data reflect the opinions of other – you become what others expect you to become (expectancy effect/behaviour confirmati
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