Lecture 4 Outline
85 Multiple choice
6 chapters – 12 items from each chapter and 13 lecture items
empirical studies are fair game
Know the MMPI
Know the rocha and the phases
Know the projection tests
How personality tests are administered
Nothing on the exam about case studies
Movie: Freud Under Analysis
Not going to be asking about names of psychologists and their remote studies
Don‟t need to know dates
Should know the defense mechanisms
Know the correlation coefficient
1. Neo-Freudian Theories
Divergences in theory and method
o There have been a number of divergences is mythological and emphasizes in
making the treatment shorts
o Theological divergences emphasizes on
Inferiority Complex and its role in development
Style of Life
3. Erik Erikson he was a neo-Freudian. He was trained by Freud‟s daughter. He doesn‟t centre
on sexual drives by rather social drives. He refers social drives as to peoples need to develop
various kind of relationship with others and establish themselves as a useful person in the group.
Psychosocial Stage Theory social drives mean peoples need to have meaningful
relationships with people and the need to belong. He highlighted that our species is very
social. The last four stages have no Freudian counterpart
o Basis trust vs. mistrust (birth – 1): Oral – pleasure from taking things in the
o Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (1-3): Anal – anal region-kid wants to gain
immediate pleasure from passing feces, but wants to please parents
o Initiative vs. guilt (3-5): Phallic – incestuous desire for opposite parent. Guilt.
o Industry vs. inferiority (5-12): Latency – time of repressed sexuality-libido
displaced into middle childhood activities like learning, making friends etc o Identify vs. identity confusion (adolescences) it is period were there a very
rapid physical and emotional change. We also see an increasing social expectation
for adult behaviour. Erikson said this is the time the ego must reevaluate reality.
They become concerned about what other think of them and fitting in.
Central argument here is moving away from the parents and seeking
This stage is worst now than it was before there is a lot of role
D. Bakan “Adolescence fact or fiction”
o Intimacy vs. isolation (young adulthood)
During this phase mature psychological development is measured in
successfully completion of
Critical normative events
He argues the formation of personal identity continues to pay an important
part but young adults can‟t differentiate from mom and dad but from their
To very large the maturity is
The need for independence and need for intimacy and these two things
butt up with each other. As young adult we are motivate to fused our
identity with another person
Isolation happens when a person is too rigid.
Erikson noticed that this point we are highly motivated
We can‟t be in a deep caring relationship until you have established your
o Generativity vs. stagnation (middle adulthood)
This stage is a very board concept, which included parenthood,
productivity, and creativity.
This is when people are the happiest for reasons that make a whole a lot of
sense because they are stable in their jobs, they have developed their
Erikson noted that generativity may also include the need to preserve the
environment, to be more aware of global issues.
The conflict here is between generativity and stagnation (the peoples who
have just given up)
Stagnation the person fails to generate; these have just given up.
The emotion that is most associated with generativity is caring, welfare for
others in your group
o Integrity vs. despair (late adulthood)
Creativity the ability to look at life in a more detach way.
Failure to resolve other conflict this is called despair.
Current behaviour is directed by future goals.
Motivation is the striving towards the fulfillment. Fictional Finalism
Ideas that guide behaviour.
Humans strive for perceived/imagined goals.
The ultimate goal is superiority
Innate capacity for good will and sense of community
Midterm Tutorial 1
Chapter 2: clues to personality
Four kinds of “clues”: S, I, L. B data
o 1. S Data = self-judgments: Ask the person directly – you ask the person if you
can ask the questions about themselves.
E.g. Likert-type scales, true-false, open minded questions
Objective – are any test truly objective and they can be as directive as
Must have face validity – the reason what you are measuring is what you
S data tests are the most frequently used tests for personality assessment
and in fact over used.
Advantages S data
Self as best expert about self
Casual force (self-fulfilling prophecy) this concept of you create your own reality
Efficacy expectations (Beliefs that you can become the perception you or others have of
yourself) if someone else sees you in a certain way you are most likely to be like that way
Self verification (get others to treat you in a manner that conforms your self-perception)
Simple and easy
Disadvantages S data:
Not about to disclose
Too simple, cheap and easy
2. I data = judgment by others
Ask the person‟s friend, family, acquaintances
Subjective and judgmental
Advantages I data
Large volume of information
Real-world basis (natural context) they take into considered context.
Common sense (behaviour observed in context of the situation )
Causal force: I data reflect the opinions of other – you become what others expect you to become (expectancy effect/behaviour confirmati