Class Notes (836,221)
Canada (509,695)
York University (35,328)
Psychology (4,108)
PSYC 2510 (86)
Lecture

Consciousness

7 Pages
54 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2510
Professor
Agnieszka Kopinska
Semester
Fall

Description
CONSCIOUSNESS  Understanding consciousness has driven psychology since it’s birth  Wundt and the structuralists through introspection  Consciousness – the awareness of the immediate experience (awareness of internal and external stimuli)  William James (1904)  Wrote an essay – “Does consciousness exist?”  Consciousness is not a “thing” but a process  The function of consciousness is knowing  Stream of consciousness – constant change  No current coherent framework of consciousness Tononi’s Integrated Information Theory (ITT) of Consciousness  Conscious states are highly differentiated  Conscious information is deeply integrated  Put together all the different things you’re conscious of into a “big idea”  Interaction in the brain create various states of consciousness  = extent to which brain is integrated  ITT explains why consciousness can occur without stimulation, as in REM sleep  Assumes that all beings can achieve some level of consciousness  Unanswered questions:  What’s the evolutionary advantage of developing consciousness?  Why are so many human processes unconscious? States of consciousness  Sleep and wakefulness  Altered states of consciousness  Hypnosis  Dissociation  Substance-induced  Meditation  We can measure states of consciousness with a EEG  BETA (high-frequency) waves – awake, normal alert consciousness  ALPHA waves – relaxed, calm, lucid, not thinking  THETA waves – deep relaxation and meditation, mental imagery  DELTA (low-frequency) waves – deep, dreamless sleep  Still unsure what relationship brainwaves and states of consciousness have  Attention is important (but not essential) in controlled states of consciousness  Some cognitive processes are automatic instead  e.g. mind wandering/day dreaming Biological Rhythms and Sleep  Biological rhythms – periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning  Monitored by internal/biological clocks  Influence changes in consciousness  Circadian rhythms  Repeat once a day (cycle over about 24 hours)  Continue even in the absence of external cues  Can be adjusted to match time zone  E.g. sleep regulation, hunger, hormonal secretions  Circadian rhythms are regulated by multiple internal clocks  Central executive is suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)  Sleeping enough is important to ensure optimal cognitive functioning  Jet-lag, shift work, and ignoring one’s own sleep pattern results in difficulty sleeping and less efficient functioning  Studied in laboratories overnight  cycle is repeated about 4 times  each cycle lasts about 90 minutes  REM sleep tends to get longer as the night progresses  Sleep patterns change over time  Infancy – twice as much REM sleep than adults  Adults – more time in stage 1 and less deep sleep time, especially for men  Elderly – sleep less (on average) and wake up more often  Sleep is a function of multiple neurotransmitters and brain areas working together  Ascending reticular activating system (ARAS)  Sleep and waking regulation  Medulla, thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system  Sleep and waking  Pons and midbrain  REM sleep  Serotonin, GABA, and other neurotransmitters also affect sleep and wakefulness  Sleep restriction – not getting enough sleep (<5hr.s/night, for many nights)  Impairs cognitive functioning to some extent  Can result in accidents and mistakes, slower response times  Selective deprivation  Happens during sleep studies  Participants woken up whenever they enter REM sleep or slow- wave sleep  Show that body seeks to “catch up” on these missed stages during subsequent nights  Sleeping helps consolidate our memories so that learning can occur  Different stages of sleep may be involved in consolidation of different types of information Sleep Disorders  Insomnia – trouble falling sleep, staying asleep, or sleeping until desired wake-up time, for at least one month  Can be caused by anxiety, medical problems, substance abuse, etc.  Widespread problem – about 34-35% of adults report insomnia symptoms  Increases with age  50% more common with women than with men  Treatment - Benzodiazepines (sleeping pills)  GABA synapses  Effective short-term solution  Potential for dependence to develop  Interference with sleep cycle  Treatment – cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) can help frustration linked to insomnia  Identify/reduce cycle of negative thoughts that leads to anxiety  Abdominal breathing exercises  Vivid imagery  Progressive muscle relaxation  Narcolepsy – day time “sleep attacks”  Sleep apnea – breathing interruptions during sleep  Nightmares (REM sleep) – when most vivid dreaming happens  Night terrors (non-REM sleep) – not a dream per se, altered state of consciousness but eyes can be open; may be a physiological phenomenon; a state between sleep and alertness  Somnambulism – sleep walking; occurs about two hours into the sleep cycle Dreaming  Aristotle wrote about the nature of dreams in 350 B.C.E  There is still controversy surrounding the mechanisms of dreaming  Overall understanding: mental experiences, some strange content, mainly during REM sleep  some dream themes are more common than others
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2510

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit