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Abnormal psychology 3230 - lecture 2.docx

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York University
PSYC 3140
James Alcock

January 14, 2013 Tahreem Mahmood Lecture 2 Abnormal Psychology -Psych 3230 Medical Model of Mental Illness  Understand the underlying biological cause, apple treatment; symptoms would disappear  Possible psychosocial determinants and influences were neglected  During this era, huge advances in understanding the nervous system o Brain pathology underlying some mental disorders – cerebral arteriosclerosis, senile psychosis, some types of retardation o By early 1900s, it had been proven that a major mental disorder, “general paresis of the insane” was caused by the syphilis spirochete Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory – Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)  Basic premise: Psychic determinism – o Behaviour, normal and abnormal is product of dynamic processes and conflict within the mind o E.g. conflicts between drives such as sex and aggression on the one hand, and moral norms and rules on the other  Freud became interested in hysterical patients o Hysterical blindness paralysis, etc. (Recall Hippocrates) o Symptoms often disappeared if patient, under hypnosis discussed upsetting incidents, and feelings associated with them  This suggested to Freud the idea of unconscious impulses, thoughts, feelings  Freud developed a complex theory that accounted for both normal and abnormal behaviour  ID: o Present at birth; completely unconscious o Biological drives; pleasure principle o “primary process thinking” – conjures up images of desired objects  Ego: o Begins to develop in the first year of life, becomes fantasy not capable of satisfying needs; o Seeks to express id’s needs in manner consistent with demands of environment; reality principle: Secondary process thinking (planning, etc.)  Superego: o Develops gradually as child becomes aware of parents moral standards; o Operates according to moral principles; o Punishes through guilt and shame; partly unconscious January 14, 2013 Tahreem Mahmood Lecture 2 Abnormal Psychology -Psych 3230  Feud viewed id’s demands as creating a basic conflict between animal instincts and the restrictions placed by society – e.g. urination  Ego caught in squeeze between id and superego o Can result in anxiety o Three kinds of anxiety  Reality anxiety  Neurotic anxiety – ear of losing control of id impulses  Moral anxiety – arises when contemplating thoughts or behaviour that superego will punish  I’m hungry so I’m going to go steal from the super market- the super ego punishes you  Ego has to handle the conflicts and anxiety; uses defence mechanisms o Repression is the fundamental defence mechanism  We have heard a lot about this recently in terms of “recovered memories”  there is no evidence that this actually exists o Regression  three year old acts like a one year old when a baby comes so that they get more attention o Projection  You think I want to steal your stuff because you steal my stuff. (Projecting your feelings on others o Reaction formation  Do the opposite of what you wanted January 14, 2013 Tahreem Mahmood Lecture 2 Abnormal Psychology -Psych 3230 o Denial  some people do project thee sometimes o Rationalization o Displacement  You blame someone else. Take your anger out at a spouse when you come home instead of your boss o Sublimation  sublimating energy through art  Freud ultimately abandoned hypnosis and used free association and dream analysis to uncover the hidden conflicts o There is no evidence that we have a constant urge through sexuality or anger  His theory is very complicated; contains amongst may other elements his stages of psychosexual development o Oral, anal (18 months to 3 years), phallic (3 to 6 years), latency (6 to 12 years), genital  Phallic stage: little boy notices that he has a penis but dad has a bigger penis and will castrate him. o Oedipal and Electra conflicts (sexual desire for parent of opposite sex)  Oedipal: he wants to possess his mother but is afraid of his dad  Electra: little girl notices that she doesn’t have a penis and doesn’t know where it went. She wants her father sexually to get her penis back  Freud based his theory on this treatment sessions with upper middle-class Viennese women; No research per se  Freud made important contributions o Stressed that we do not always know why we act as we do o Stressed the continuum between normal and abnormal  Normal and abnormal: slips of tongue reflect some unconscious process o Stressed the importance of childhood experience for adult personality o Stressed the importance of sexual impulses  Sexual impulses – were unsavoury because to talk about children having sexual impulses was inappropriate  Ultimately, we have come to realize that Freud’s theory is fundamentally flawed, and ill- conceived o Too much emphasis on unconscious conflicts, on sexual and aggressive impulses o Highly pessimistic view of humans; need to supress impulses o Ignored cultural and social influences o Falsifiable as a theory; unsupported by research o Yet its language continues to influence our literature and our terminology January 14, 2013 Tahreem Mahmood Lecture 2 Abnormal Psychology -Psych 3230  Freud had important disciples, including his daughter Anna Freud  Most fell away from Freud and modified his theory in their own way o Carl Jung o Alfred Adler  “Neo-Freudians” o Erich Fromm o Karen Horney o Erik Erikson Carl Jung  Freud’s heir apparent  Broke with Freud and developed his own psychodynamic model o “Analytical Psychology”  Accepted Freud’s belief in the role of the unconscious  Strongly disagreed with Freud re importance of libido o Sigmund Freud thought things out of his head without any evidence o Jung tried to refine Freud’s psychoanalysis and that upset Freud o Libido- sexual impulses  Was early on deeply involved un spiritualism and occult  Conceived the notion of the collective unconscious o Believed that we inherit a collective unconscious mind that reflects the accumulated history of humankind – contains primitive basic images or ideas o interpreted his behaviour as human behaviour  e.g. Mandela (circle) – found everywhere in primitive art  Mandela: inherited from a long time ago  E.g. – notion of parent, child  But also believed that self-awareness and self-direction are important o Aim of human being is to realize his/her potential and find unity and integration within him/herself in order to achieve a healthy personality o Mind is spate from body and it should continue to exist after one died Alfred Adler  Also part of Freud’s inner circle  He too broke away; rejected Freud’s biological motivation view  Developed “Individual Psychology”  Considered an innate “striving for superiority” as the primary determinant of personality January 14, 2013 Tahreem Mahmood Lecture 2 Abnormal Psychology -Psych 3230 o People are driven by an “inferiority complex” o
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