endogeneous- innate predispositions
exogeneous- environmental influences on mental states and development. development
happens with endo+exo - social brian.
factors afftecting social dev. endo
1.like me simulation
2.imitation and cross modal perception
3.prefernce for human interaction
4.emotional awareness, emotion sharing, attunement
1. like me simulation: innate ability to recognize that others
are like self or conspecifics. they allow for more detailed
representation of species through continuous interaction.
as infants develop they perceive complex behaviours in others.
they have innate programming to identify others similar to them
and to interact with conspecificsand caretakers. they are not just
imitating or forming approximate behaviours of others.
examples of this behaviour is demonstrated through 2 theories -
sensory maturation (Jhonson) and innate recognition (bushnell)
theory1: Jhonson states that face recognition is the result of
visual sensory input.
only sensory level recognition, however faces are special and
this type of sensory input develops over time with the
development of cortical regions
the theory states that infants are born with 2 learning abilities-
conspec and conlern
conspec- innate specifiaction to the general structure of the face conlern- through con spec it acquires specific information about
the visual characteristic of face- retained information can be
tested after the 2 or 3 mth.
between figures or images more gazing was directed to face like
figure therefore confirming that just after 15-69 mins infants
display con spec. could not discriminate between config and face
but only totally different category like linear shows evidence for a
non-structural face recognition.
theory 2: bushnell state that face perception is the result of
babies 48 hrs old in a controlled experiment could regonise their
mothers by sight as opposed to stranger. they looked more at
criticism for the j and m theory is that they 2 visual system is
underdeveloped for neonates and allows only for a cage face like
discrimination- contour sensitivity research.
another research done by bushnell is recognition by olfactory-
cameras were covered with gauzes olfactory information intact.
result: could not discriminate based on olfactory alone.
neonates were able to detailed face information to discriminate. speech perception - human speech, motor tongue- 1 m but not
6m coz of sensitivity.
2. imitation and cross modal perception
imitation present at birth, humans vs objects
social mech to learn bat ppl.
thorugh imitation babies begin to infer meaning to behaviours its
is more of an intentional learning mech. than a reflexive learning.
imitation is present only when the subject present facial feature
thus non random.
infants are able to imitate proprioceptive behaviours without the
ability of motor control as proposed by piaget in the 6 stages of
in order to achieve intermodal coordination infants store the
information in a an abstract form so that it is easily
communicated and translated between different modalities.
therefore the two different arguments presented by piaget and
Piaget: infants are able to coordinate btwn sense through the
end of the sensory motor stage as a result of experience that is
initially the infants with their hand feel mouths,m they also reach
out to feel the mouths of their parents and when they are bat
10mth old they make a connection btwn their faces and parents and therefore can imitate the complex action such as tongue
whereas, meltzoff argues that the transfer of perceptual
information across modalities is an innate process. infants are
able to store information in an abstract format therefore making it
easier to convert information. since this is an innate capability it
explains why newborns are able to imitate tongue protrusion.
evidence research: visual and tactual also visual- auditory
v-a: infants paid attention to both sound and mouth and imitated
only when both matched which means that they