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PSYC 3520 (19)


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York University
PSYC 3520
Maria Legerstee

endogeneous- innate predispositions exogeneous- environmental influences on mental states and development. development happens with endo+exo - social brian. factors afftecting social dev. endo me simulation 2.imitation and cross modal perception 3.prefernce for human interaction 4.emotional awareness, emotion sharing, attunement 1. like me simulation: innate ability to recognize that others are like self or conspecifics. they allow for more detailed representation of species through continuous interaction. as infants develop they perceive complex behaviours in others. they have innate programming to identify others similar to them and to interact with conspecificsand caretakers. they are not just imitating or forming approximate behaviours of others. examples of this behaviour is demonstrated through 2 theories - sensory maturation (Jhonson) and innate recognition (bushnell) theory1: Jhonson states that face recognition is the result of visual sensory input. only sensory level recognition, however faces are special and this type of sensory input develops over time with the development of cortical regions the theory states that infants are born with 2 learning abilities- conspec and conlern conspec- innate specifiaction to the general structure of the face conlern- through con spec it acquires specific information about the visual characteristic of face- retained information can be tested after the 2 or 3 mth. between figures or images more gazing was directed to face like figure therefore confirming that just after 15-69 mins infants display con spec. could not discriminate between config and face but only totally different category like linear shows evidence for a non-structural face recognition. theory 2: bushnell state that face perception is the result of innate recognition. babies 48 hrs old in a controlled experiment could regonise their mothers by sight as opposed to stranger. they looked more at their mothers. criticism for the j and m theory is that they 2 visual system is underdeveloped for neonates and allows only for a cage face like discrimination- contour sensitivity research. another research done by bushnell is recognition by olfactory- cameras were covered with gauzes olfactory information intact. result: could not discriminate based on olfactory alone. neonates were able to detailed face information to discriminate. speech perception - human speech, motor tongue- 1 m but not 6m coz of sensitivity. 2. imitation and cross modal perception imitation present at birth, humans vs objects social mech to learn bat ppl. thorugh imitation babies begin to infer meaning to behaviours its is more of an intentional learning mech. than a reflexive learning. imitation is present only when the subject present facial feature thus non random. infants are able to imitate proprioceptive behaviours without the ability of motor control as proposed by piaget in the 6 stages of dev. in order to achieve intermodal coordination infants store the information in a an abstract form so that it is easily communicated and translated between different modalities. therefore the two different arguments presented by piaget and meltzoff is: Piaget: infants are able to coordinate btwn sense through the end of the sensory motor stage as a result of experience that is initially the infants with their hand feel mouths,m they also reach out to feel the mouths of their parents and when they are bat 10mth old they make a connection btwn their faces and parents and therefore can imitate the complex action such as tongue protrusion. whereas, meltzoff argues that the transfer of perceptual information across modalities is an innate process. infants are able to store information in an abstract format therefore making it easier to convert information. since this is an innate capability it explains why newborns are able to imitate tongue protrusion. evidence research: visual and tactual also visual- auditory v-a: infants paid attention to both sound and mouth and imitated only when both matched which means that they
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